Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 23, Issue 21, pp 21780–21793 | Cite as

Analysis of baseline and alternative air quality scenarios for Pakistan: an integrated approach

  • Kaleem Anwar Mir
  • Pallav Purohit
  • Gary A. Goldstein
  • Rajasekhar Balasubramanian
Research Article


This study aims to assess the current and future air pollution and associated health impacts in Pakistan. In this study, the Pakistan Integrated Energy Model (Pak-IEM) is used to assess current and future energy consumption in Pakistan. To assess air pollution levels and associated health impacts, we used the Greenhouse gas and Air pollution INteractions and Synergies (GAINS) model. A linkage has been established between both the models to feed the energy outputs from Pak-IEM into GAINS for exploring different scenarios. Mainly, the emissions of three air pollutants (SO2, NOx, and PM2.5) as well as the associated health impacts of increased emissions are assessed. Baseline emission scenario (BES) shows a growth in emissions of SO2, NOx, and PM2.5 by a factor of 2.4, 2.2, and 2.5 between 2007 and 2030. In terms of health impacts, by 2030, annual mean concentrations of fine particles (PM2.5) would increase to more than 150 μg/m3 in some parts of Punjab region of Pakistan, for which loss in statistical life expectancy is calculated to increase from 30 to 60 months in 2007 up to 60–100 months in 2030 on average.


Air pollution Abatement policies Scenario analysis Health impact 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kaleem Anwar Mir
    • 1
    • 5
  • Pallav Purohit
    • 2
  • Gary A. Goldstein
    • 3
  • Rajasekhar Balasubramanian
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Design & EnvironmentNational University of Singapore (NUS)SingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)LaxenburgAustria
  3. 3.DecisionWare Group LLCSag HarborUSA
  4. 4.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringNational University of Singapore (NUS)SingaporeSingapore
  5. 5.Global Change Impact Studies Centre (GCISC)Ministry of Climate ChangeIslamabadPakistan

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