Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 23, Issue 20, pp 20937–20951 | Cite as

Drugs of environmental concern modify Solea senegalensis physiology and biochemistry in a temperature-dependent manner

Research Article


The alerted presence in recent decades of pharmaceuticals has become an issue of environmental concern, and most of the mechanisms of biotransformation and biochemical and physiological responses to them in fish are still unknown, as well as the influence of water temperature in their ability to cope with them. This study aims to detect the main effects of two of the most widespread drugs on a set of physiological and biochemical markers in Solea senegalensis. Sole juveniles acclimatized at 15 and 20 °C were administered an intraperitoneal injection of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen (IB; 10 mg/kg) and the anti-convulsant drug carbamazepine (CBZ; 1 mg/kg). Two days after the injection, liver, muscle and plasma were sampled. Liver enzymatic activities of 15 °C acclimated fish were more responsive to pharmaceuticals than those acclimated at 20 °C, especially for CYP450-related activities (7-ethoxyresorufin (EROD), 7-methoxyresorufin (MROD), 3-cyano-7-ethoxycoumarin (CECOD) and 7-benzyloxy-4-[trifluoromethyl]-coumarin-O-debenzyloxylase (BFCOD)) and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UDPGT). Cytosolic anti-oxidant enzyme activities and glutathione S-transferase (GST) did not show a clear effect of temperature. Glucose and transferase activities in plasma were not affected by the treatments, while ammonium, osmolality and lactate were affected by both pharmaceuticals. Plasma triglycerides were affected in a temperature-dependent manner, and creatinine was only responsive to CBZ injection. HSP70 levels in muscle were only affected by CBZ injection. Some of the physiological identified responses to IB and CBZ are proposed as endpoints in further chronic studies.


Sole Plasma metabolites CYP enzymes Anti-oxidant enzymes HSP70 Ibuprofen Carbamazepine 


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento Biología Funcional y Antropología FísicaUniversitat de ValènciaBurjassotSpain
  2. 2.Instituto de Acuicultura Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC)Ribera de CabanesSpain
  3. 3.Institut de Ciencies del Mar (ICM-CSIC)BarcelonaSpain

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