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Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 23, Issue 20, pp 20506–20516 | Cite as

Endosulfan inhibiting the meiosis process via depressing expressions of regulatory factors and causing cell cycle arrest in spermatogenic cells

  • Fang-Zi Guo
  • Lian-Shuang Zhang
  • Jia-Liu Wei
  • Li-Hua Ren
  • Jin Zhang
  • Li JingEmail author
  • Man Yang
  • Ji Wang
  • Zhi-Wei Sun
  • Xian-Qing ZhouEmail author
Research Article

Abstract

Endosulfan is a persistent organic pollutant and widely used in agriculture as a pesticide. It is present in air, water, and soil worldwide; therefore, it is a health risk affecting especially the reproductive system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of endosulfan in the reproductive system. To investigate the effect of endosulfan on meiosis process, 32 rats were divided into four groups, treated with 0, 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg/day endosulfan, respectively, and sacrificed after the 21 days of treatments. Results show that endosulfan caused the reductions in sperm concentration and motility rate, which resulted into an increased in sperm abnormality rate; further, endosulfan induced downregulation of spermatogenesis- and oogenesis-specific basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor (Sohlh1) which controls the switch on meiosis in mammals, as well cyclin A1, cyclin-dependent kinases 1 (CDK1), and cyclin-dependent kinases 2 (CDK2). In vitro, endosulfan induced G2/M phase arrest in the spermatogenic cell cycle and caused proliferation inhibition. Moreover, endosulfan induced oxidative stress and DNA damage in vivo and vitro. The results suggested that endosulfan could inhibit the start of meiosis by downregulating the expression of Sohlh1 and induce G2/M phase arrest of cell cycle by decreasing the expression of cyclin A1, CDK1, and CDK2 via oxidative damage, which inhibits the meiosis process, and therefore decrease the amount of sperm.

Keywords

Endosulfan Meiosis start Meiosis process Cell cycle arrest Spermatogenic cell Rat 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31172086).

Supplementary material

11356_2016_7195_Fig7_ESM.gif (53 kb)
Figure S1

The type of sperm abnormality. The sperm abnormalities were mainly twin tails and crimp of tails (×100 magnification). Thick black arrow indicates the type of sperm abnormality is crimp of tails. Thin black arrow indicates the type of sperm abnormality is twin tails. (GIF 53 kb)

11356_2016_7195_MOESM1_ESM.tif (962 kb)
High-resolution image (TIFF 961 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fang-Zi Guo
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lian-Shuang Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jia-Liu Wei
    • 1
    • 2
  • Li-Hua Ren
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jin Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Li Jing
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Man Yang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ji Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Zhi-Wei Sun
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xian-Qing Zhou
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Toxicology and Hygienic Chemistry, School of Public HealthCapital Medical UniversityBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental ToxicologyCapital Medical UniversityBeijingChina

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