Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 23, Issue 24, pp 24435–24450 | Cite as

Reviewing the anaerobic digestion and co-digestion process of food waste from the perspectives on biogas production performance and environmental impacts

  • Sam L. H. Chiu
  • Irene M. C. LoEmail author
Global pollution problems, Trends in Detection and Protection


In this paper, factors that affect biogas production in the anaerobic digestion (AD) and anaerobic co-digestion (coAD) processes of food waste are reviewed with the aim to improve biogas production performance. These factors include the composition of substrates in food waste coAD as well as pre-treatment methods and anaerobic reactor system designs in both food waste AD and coAD. Due to the characteristics of the substrates used, the biogas production performance varies as different effects are exhibited on nutrient balance, inhibitory substance dilution, and trace metal element supplement. Various types of pre-treatment methods such as mechanical, chemical, thermal, and biological methods are discussed to improve the rate-limiting hydrolytic step in the digestion processes. The operation parameters of a reactor system are also reviewed with consideration of the characteristics of the substrates. Since the environmental awareness and concerns for waste management systems have been increasing, this paper also addresses possible environmental impacts of AD and coAD in food waste treatment and recommends feasible methods to reduce the impacts. In addition, uncertainties in the life cycle assessment (LCA) studies are also discussed.


Anaerobic reactor Biogas utilization Co-substrate Environmental impact Life cycle assessment Methane Pre-treatment Uncertainty analysis 


  1. Abbasi T, Tauseef S, Abbasi SA (2012) Biogas energy. Springer Briefs in Environmental Science 2(2012):1–10Google Scholar
  2. Agyeman FO, Tao W (2014) Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and dairy manure: effects of food waste particle size and organic loading rate. J Environ Manage 133:268–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anthonisen AC, Loehr RC, Prakasam TBS, Srinath EG (1976) Inhibition of nitrification by ammonia and nitrous acid. J Water Pollut Control Fed 48:835–849Google Scholar
  4. Appels L, Baeyens J, Degrève J, Dewil R (2008) Principles and potential of the anaerobic digestion of waste-activated sludge. Prog Energ Combust 34(6):755–781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ariunbaatar J, Panico A, Esposito G, Pirozzi F, Lens PN (2014a) Pretreatment methods to enhance anaerobic digestion of organic solid waste. Appl Energ 123:143–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ariunbaatar J, Panico A, Frunzo L, Esposito G, Lens PN, Pirozzi F (2014) Enhanced anaerobic digestion of food waste by thermal and ozonation pretreatment methods. J Environ Manage 146:142–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arsova L (2010) Anaerobic digestion of food waste: current status, problems and an alternative product. Masters thesis. Columbia University. Department of Earth and Environmental Engineering, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  8. Astals S, Ariso M, Galí A, Mata-Alvarez J (2011) Co-digestion of pig manure and glycerine: experimental and modelling study. J Environ Manage 92(4):1091–1096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Astals S, Nolla-Ardèvol V, Mata-Alvarez J (2012) Anaerobic co-digestion of pig manure and crude glycerol at mesophilic conditions: biogas and digestate. Bioresour Technol 110:63–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Aye L, Widjaya E (2006) Environmental and economic analyses of waste disposal options for traditional markets in Indonesia. Waste Manage 26(10):1180–1191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Baker JW, Lepech MD (2009) Treatment of uncertainties in life cycle assessment. In: Proceedings of the 10th international congress on structural safety and reliability. Osaka, Japan, pp 13–17Google Scholar
  12. Bernstad A, la Cour JJ (2011) A life cycle approach to the management of household food waste—a Swedish full-scale case study. Waste manage 31(8):1879–1896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bernstad A, la Cour JJ (2012) Review of comparative LCAs of food waste management systems—current status and potential improvements. Waste Manage 32(12):2439–2455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Blengini GA, Genon G, Fantoni M (2011) LCA of integrated municipal solid waste management systems: case studies of Torino & Cuneo, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  15. Boldrin A, Neidel TL, Damgaard A, Bhander GS, Møller J, Christensen TH (2011) Modelling of environmental impacts from biological treatment of organic municipal waste in EASEWASTE. Waste Manage 31(4):619–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bolzonella D, Battistoni P, Susini C, Cecchi F (2006) Anaerobic codigestion of waste activated sludge and OFMSW: the experiences of Viareggio and Treviso plants (Italy). Water Sci Technol 53(8):203–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Börjesson P, Berglund M (2007) Environmental systems analysis of biogas systems—Part II: the environmental impact of replacing various reference systems. Biomass Bioenerg 31(5):326–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bouallagui H, Touhami Y, Cheikh RB, Hamdi M (2005) Bioreactor performance in anaerobic digestion of fruit and vegetable wastes. Process Biochem 40(3):989–995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bouallagui H, Rachdi B, Gannoun H, Hamdi M (2009) Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of abattoir wastewater and fruit and vegetable waste in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors. Biodegradation 20(3):401–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Braun R, Wellinger A (2009) Potential of co-digestion. IEA Bioenergy, Task 37Google Scholar
  21. Cabbai V, Ballico M, Aneggi E, Goi D (2013) BMP tests of source selected OFMSW to evaluate anaerobic codigestion with sewage sludge. Waste Manage 33(7):1626–1632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Caine M (2000) Biogas flares: state of the art and market review. Topic Report of the IEA Bioenergy Agreement Task 24-Biological Conversion of Municipal Solid WasteGoogle Scholar
  23. Calabro PS (2009) Greenhouse gases emission from municipal waste management: the role of separate collection. Waste Manage 29(7):2178–2187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Carlsson M, Lagerkvist A, Morgan-Sagastume F (2012) The effects of substrate pre-treatment on anaerobic digestion systems: a review. Waste Manage 32(9):1634–1650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cavinato C, Bolzonella D, Pavan P, Fatone F, Cecchi F (2013) Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of waste activated sludge and source sorted biowaste in pilot-and full-scale reactors. Renew Energ 55:260–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cesaro A, Naddeo V, Amodio V, Belgiorno V (2012) Enhanced biogas production from anaerobic codigestion of solid waste by sonolysis. Ultrason Sonochem 19(3):596–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chaya W, Gheewala SH (2007) Life cycle assessment of MSW-to-energy schemes in Thailand. J Clean Prod 15(15):1463–1468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chen Y, Cheng JJ, Creamer KS (2008) Inhibition of anaerobic digestion process: a review. Bioresour Technol 99(10):4044–4064CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chen X, Romano RT, Zhang R (2010) Anaerobic digestion of food wastes for biogas production. Int J Agr Biol Eng 3(4):61–72Google Scholar
  30. Chiu SLH, Lo IMC, Woon KS, Yan DYS (2016) Life cycle assessment of waste treatment strategy for sewage sludge and food waste in Macau: perspectives on environmental and energy production performance. Int J Life Cycle Assess 21(2):176–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Clavreul J, Guyonnet D, Christensen TH (2012) Quantifying uncertainty in LCA-modelling of waste management systems. Waste Manage 32(12):2482–2495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Climenhaga M, Banks C (2008) Anaerobic digestion of catering wastes: effect of micronutrients and solids retention time. Water Sci Technol 57(5):687–692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cuetos M, Gómez X, Otero M, Morán A (2010) Anaerobic digestion and co-digestion of slaughterhouse waste (SHW): influence of heat and pressure pre-treatment in biogas yield. Waste Manage 30(10):1780–1789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dai X, Duan N, Dong B, Dai L (2013) High-solids anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and food waste in comparison with mono digestions: stability and performance. Waste Manage 33(2):308–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Deublein D, Steinhauser A (2011) Biogas from waste and renewable resources: an introduction. John Wiley & Sons, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  36. Elbeshbishy E, Nakhla G (2011) Comparative study of the effect of ultrasonication on the anaerobic biodegradability of food waste in single and two-stage systems. Bioresour Technol 102(11):6449–6457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Elliott A, Mahmood T (2007) Pretreatment technologies for advancing anaerobic digestion of pulp and paper biotreatment residues. Water Res 41(19):4273–4286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. El Hadj TB, Astals S, Gali A, Mace S, Mata-Alvarez J (2009) Ammonia influence in anaerobic digestion of OFMSW. Water Sci Technol 59(6):1153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. El-Mashad HM, Zhang R (2010) Biogas production from co-digestion of dairy manure and food waste. Bioresour Technol 101(11):4021–4028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Eriksson M, Strid I, Hansson P (2015) Carbon footprint of food waste management options in the waste hierarchy—a Swedish case study. J Cleaner Prod 93:115–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Esposito G, Frunzo L, Giordano A, Liotta F, Panico A, Pirozzi F (2012) Anaerobic co-digestion of organic wastes. Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol 11(4):325–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. European Commission (2010) Life cycle thinking and assessment for waste management. (Accessed March 2016)
  43. Evangelisti S, Lettieri P, Borello D, Clift R (2014) Life cycle assessment of energy from waste via anaerobic digestion: a UK case study. Waste Manage 34(1):226–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2014) Food and nutrition in numbers 2014Google Scholar
  45. Fernández J, Perez M, Romero LI (2008) Effect of substrate concentration on dry mesophilic anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). Bioresour Technol 99(14):6075–6080CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Forster P, Ramaswamy V, Artaxo P, Berntsen T, Betts R, Fahey DW, Haywood J, Lean J, Lowe DC, Myhre G, Nganga J, Prinn R, Raga G, Schulz M, Van Dorland R (2007) Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing. In: Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate changeGoogle Scholar
  47. Frear C, Liao W, Ewing T, Chen S (2011) Evaluation of co-digestion at a commercial dairy anaerobic digester. Clean Soil Air Water 39(7):697–704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Fricke K, Pereira C, Heußner C, Hüttner A, Turk T (2015) Biodigestion of solid residues—experiences in Germany. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Solid Wastes 2015: knowledge transfer for sustainable resource management. Hong Kong SAR, P.R. China, pp 33–44Google Scholar
  49. Gallert C, Winter J (1997) Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic of source-sorted organic wastes: effect of ammonia on glucose degradation and methane production. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 48:405–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Güelfo LF, Álvarez-Gallego C, Márquez DS, García LR (2011) The effect of different pretreatments on biomethanation kinetics of industrial organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW). Chem Eng J 171(2):411–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Güereca LP, Gassó S, Baldasano JM, Jiménez-Guerrero P (2006) Life cycle assessment of two biowaste management systems for Barcelona, Spain. Resour Conserv Recyc 49(1):32–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Guerra SA, Olsen SR, Anderson JJ (2014) Evaluation of the SO2 and NOx offset ratio method to account for secondary PM2.5 formation. J Air Waste Manage Assoc 64(3):265–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Guo J, Wang W, Liu X, Lian S, Zheng L (2014) Effects of thermal pre-treatment on anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biowastes at high organic loading rate. Chemosphere 101:66–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Haider MR, Yousaf S, Malik RN, Visvanathan C (2015) Effect of mixing ratio of food waste and rice husk co-digestion and substrate to inoculum ratio on biogas production. Bioresour Technol 190:451–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hansen TL, la Cour JJ, Davidsson Å, Christensen TH (2007) Effects of pre-treatment technologies on quantity and quality of source-sorted municipal organic waste for biogas recovery. Waste Manage 27(3):398–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hartmann H, Ahring B (2006) Strategies for the anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste: an overview. Water Sci Technol 53(8):7–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Heijungs R, Huijbregts MA (2004) A review of approaches to treat uncertainty in LCA. Elsevier, Orlando, FlaGoogle Scholar
  58. Ho L, Ho G (2012) Mitigating ammonia inhibition of thermophilic anaerobic treatment of digested piggery wastewater: use of pH reduction, zeolite, biomass and humic acid. Water Res 46(14):4339–4350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Iacovidou E, Ohandja D, Voulvoulis N (2012) Food waste co-digestion with sewage sludge—realising its potential in the UK. J Environ Manage 112:267–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Igoni AH, Ayotamuno MJ, Eze CL, Ogaji SOT, Probert SD (2008) Designs of anaerobic digesters for producing biogas from municipal solid-waste. Appl energ 85(6):430–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. IPCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2006) IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gases inventories. SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  62. Izumi K, Okishio Y, Nagao N, Niwa C, Yamamoto S, Toda T (2010) Effects of particle size on anaerobic digestion of food waste. Int Biodeter Biodegr 64(7):601–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Jha AK, Li J, Zhang L, Ban Q, Jin Y (2013) Comparison between wet and dry anaerobic digestions of cow dung under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. Adv Water Resour Prot (AWRP) 1:28–38Google Scholar
  64. Khalid A, Arshad M, Anjum M, Mahmood T, Dawson L (2011) The anaerobic digestion of solid organic waste. Waste Manage 31(8):1737–1744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Khoo HH, Lim TZ, Tan RB (2010) Food waste conversion options in Singapore: environmental impacts based on an LCA perspective. Sci Total Environ 408(6):1367–1373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kim HW, Han SK, Shin HS (2003) The optimisation of food waste addition as a co-substrate in anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge. Waste Manage Res: The Journal of the International Solid Wastes and Public Cleansing Association. ISWA 21(6):515–526Google Scholar
  67. Kirkeby JT, Birgisdottir H, Hansen TL, Christensen TH, Bhander GS, Hauschild M (2006) Evaluation of environmental impacts from municipal solid waste management in the municipality of Aarhus, Denmark (EASEWASTE). Waste Manage Res 24(1):16–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kondusamy D, Kalamdhad AS (2014) Pre-treatment and anaerobic digestion of food waste for high rate methane production—a review. J Environ Chem Eng 2(3):1821–1830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kothari R, Pandey A, Kumar S, Tyagi V, Tyagi S (2014) Different aspects of dry anaerobic digestion for bio-energy: an overview. Renew Sust Energ Rev 39:174–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kougias PG, Boe K, Tsapekos P, Angelidaki I (2014) Foam suppression in overloaded manure-based biogas reactors using antifoaming agents. Bioresour Technol 153:198–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. la Cour JJ, Gruvberger C, Hanner N, Aspegren H (2004) Digestion of sludge and organic waste in the sustainability concept for Malmš, Sweden. Water Sci Technol 49(10):163–169Google Scholar
  72. Li R, Chen S, Li X, Saifullah Lar J, He Y, Zhu B (2009) Anaerobic codigestion of kitchen waste with cattle manure for biogas production. Energ Fuel 23(4):2225–2228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Li RP, Ge YJ, Wang KS, Li XJ, Pang YZ (2010) Characteristics and anaerobic digestion performances of kitchen wastes. Renew Energy Resour 28(1):76–80Google Scholar
  74. Li Y, Jin Y (2015) Effects of thermal pretreatment on acidification phase during two-phase batch anaerobic digestion of kitchen waste. Renew Energ 77:550–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Li Y, Park SY, Zhu J (2011) Solid-state anaerobic digestion for methane production from organic waste. Renew Sust Energ Rev 15(1):821–826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lim JW, Wang J (2013) Enhanced hydrolysis and methane yield by applying microaeration pretreatment to the anaerobic co-digestion of brown water and food waste. Waste Manage 33(4):813–819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lin CSK, Pfaltzgraff LA, Herrero-Davila L, Mubofu EB, Abderrahim S, Clark JH, Koutinas AA, Kopsahells N, Stamatelatou K, Dickson F, Thankappan S, Mohamed Z, Brocklesby R, Luque R (2013) Food waste as a valuable resource for the production of chemicals, materials and fuels. Current situation and global perspective. Energ Environ Sci 6(2):426–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Liu D, Liu D, Zeng RJ, Angelidaki I (2006) Hydrogen and methane production from household solid waste in the two-stage fermentation process. Water Res 40(11):2230–2236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lu S, Imai T, Ukita M, Sekine M (2007) Start-up performances of dry anaerobic mesophilic and thermophilic digestions of organic solid wastes. J Environ Sci 19(4):416–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Ma J, Duong TH, Smits M, Verstraete W, Carballa M (2011) Enhanced biomethanation of kitchen waste by different pre-treatments. Bioresour Technol 102(2):592–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Mähnert P, Heiermann M, Linke B (2005) Batch-and semi-continuous biogas production from different grass species. Agr Eng Int: CIGR J 7:1–11Google Scholar
  82. Mao C, Feng Y, Wang X, Ren G (2015) Review on research achievements of biogas from anaerobic digestion. Renew Sust Energy Rev 45:540–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Mata-Alvarez J, Cecchi F, Pavan P, Llabres P (1990) The performances of digesters treating the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes differently sorted. Biol Waste 33(3):181–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Mata-Alvarez J, Dosta J, Romero-Güiza M, Fonoll X, Peces M, Astals S (2014) A critical review on anaerobic co-digestion achievements between 2010 and 2013. Renew Sust Energ Rev 36:412–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Meng Y, Li S, Yuan H, Zou D, Liu Y, Zhu B et al (2015) Evaluating biomethane production from anaerobic mono-and co-digestion of food waste and floatable oil (FO) skimmed from food waste. Bioresour Technol 185:7–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Møller J, Boldrin A, Christensen TH (2009) Anaerobic digestion and digestate use: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contribution. Waste Manage Res: The Journal of the International Solid Wastes and Public Cleansing Association, ISWA 27(8):813–824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Monteny GJ (2007) Ammonia emissions in agriculture. Wageningen Academic PubCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Montgomery LF, Bochmann G (2014) Pretreatment of feedstock for enhanced biogas production. IEA Bioenergy, IrelandGoogle Scholar
  89. Morris J, Matthews HS, Morawski C (2013) Review and meta-analysis of 82 studies on end-of-life management methods for source separated organics. Waste Manage 33(3):545–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Mshandete A, Björnsson L, Kivaisi AK, Rubindamayugi S, Mattiasson B (2005) Enhancement of anaerobic batch digestion of sisal pulp waste by mesophilic aerobic pre-treatment. Water Res 39(8):1569–1575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Murto M, Björnsson L, Mattiasson B (2004) Impact of food industrial waste on anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and pig manure. J Environ Manage 70(2):101–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Petersson A, Wellinger A (2009) Biogas upgrading technologies—developments and innovations. IEA Bioenergy 20Google Scholar
  93. Prorot A, Julien L, Christophe D, Patrick L (2011) Sludge disintegration during heat treatment at low temperature: a better understanding of involved mechanisms with a multiparametric approach. Biochem Eng J 54(3):178–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Righi S, Oliviero L, Pedrini M, Buscaroli A, Della Casa C (2013) Life cycle assessment of management systems for sewage sludge and food waste: centralized and decentralized approaches. J Clean Prod 44:8–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Seo S, Aramaki T, Hwang Y, Hanaki K (2004) Environmental impact of solid waste treatment methods in Korea. J Environ Eng 130(1):81–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Shah FA, Mahmood Q, Rashid N, Pervez A, Raja IA, Shah MM (2015) Co-digestion, pretreatment and digester design for enhanced methanogenesis. Renew Sust Energ Rev 42:627–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Shen Y, Linville JL, Urgun-Demirtas M, Mintz MM, Snyder SW (2015) An overview of biogas production and utilization at full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the United States: challenges and opportunities towards energy-neutral WWTPs. Renew Sust Energ Rev 50:346–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Silvestre G, Rodríguez-Abalde A, Fernández B, Flotats X, Bonmatí A (2011) Biomass adaptation over anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and trapped grease waste. Bioresour Technol 102(13):6830–6836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sosnowski P, Klepacz-Smolka A, Kaczorek K, Ledakowicz S (2008) Kinetic investigations of methane co-fermentation of sewage sludge and organic fraction of municipal solid wastes. Bioresour Technol 99(13):5731–5737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Steffen R, Szolar O, Braun R (1998) Feedstocks for anaerobic digestion. Institute for Agrobiotechnology Tulln. University of Agricultural Sciences, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  101. Sun Q, Li H, Yan J, Liu L, Yu Z, Yu X (2015) Selection of appropriate biogas upgrading technology—a review of biogas cleaning, upgrading and utilisation. Renew Sust Energ Rev 51:521–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Taherzadeh MJ, Karimi K (2008) Pretreatment of lignocellulosic wastes to improve ethanol and biogas production: a review. Int J Mol Sci 9(9):1621–1651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Torres ML, Espinosa LMdC (2008) Effect of alkaline pretreatment on anaerobic digestion of solid wastes. Waste Manage 28(11):2229–2234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. USEPA, United States Environmental Protection Agency AgSTAR Program (2011) Protocol for quantifying and reporting the performance of anaerobic digestion systems for livestock manures. USAGoogle Scholar
  105. Vindis P, Mursec B, Janzekovic M, Cus F (2009) The impact of mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion on biogas production. J Achiev Mater Manuf Eng 36(2):192–198Google Scholar
  106. Wang D, Ai P, Yu L, Tan Z, Zhang Y (2015) Comparing the hydrolysis and biogas production performance of alkali and acid pretreatments of rice straw using two-stage anaerobic fermentation. Biosyst Eng 132:47–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Woon KS, Lo IMC, Chiu SLH, Yan DYS (2016) Environmental assessment of food waste valorization in producing biogas for various types of energy use based on LCA approach. Waste Manage 50:290–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. WRAP, Waste and Resources Action Programme (2009) Anaerobic digestate quality protocol. The waste and resources action programme. The Environment Agency, The United KingdomGoogle Scholar
  109. Wu X, Yao W, Zhu J, Miller C (2010) Biogas and CH4 productivity by co-digesting swine manure with three crop residues as an external carbon source. Bioresour Technol 101(11):4042–4047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Yi J, Dong B, Jin J, Dai X (2014) Effect of increasing total solids contents on anaerobic digestion of food waste under mesophilic conditions: performance and microbial characteristics analysis. PLoS ONE 9(7), e102548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Yong Z, Dong Y, Zhang X, Tan T (2015) Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and straw for biogas production. Renew Energ 78:527–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Yoshida H, Gable JJ, Park JK (2012) Evaluation of organic waste diversion alternatives for greenhouse gas reduction. Resour Conserv Recy 60:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Yu D, Kurola JM, Lähde K, Kymäläinen M, Sinkkonen A, Romantschuk M (2014) Biogas production and methanogenic archaeal community in mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion processes. J Environ Manage 143:54–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Zhang C, Su H, Baeyens J, Tan T (2014) Reviewing the anaerobic digestion of food waste for biogas production. Renew Sust Energ Rev 38:383–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Zhang C, Xiao G, Peng L, Su H, Tan T (2013) The anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and cattle manure. Bioresour Technol 129:170–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Zhang L, Lee Y, Jahng D (2011a) Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and piggery wastewater: focusing on the role of trace elements. Bioresour Technol 102(8):5048–5059CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Zhang R, El-Mashad HM, Hartman K, Wang F, Liu G, Choate C, Gamble P (2007) Characterization of food waste as feedstock for anaerobic digestion. Bioresour Technol 98:929–935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Zhang Q, Tang L, Zhang J, Mao Z, Jiang L (2011b) Optimization of thermal-dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment for enhancement of methane production from cassava residues. Bioresour Technol 102(4):3958–3965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Zhang W, Zhang L, Li A (2015) Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste with MSW incineration plant fresh leachate: process performance and synergistic effects. Chem Eng J 259:795–805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Zitomer DH, Adhikari P, Heisel C, Dineen D (2008) Municipal anaerobic digesters for codigestion, energy recovery, and greenhouse gas reductions. Water Environ Res 80(3):229–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Zupančič GD, Uranjek-Ževart N, Roš M (2008) Full-scale anaerobic co-digestion of organic waste and municipal sludge. Biomass Bioenerg 32(2):162–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringThe Hong Kong University of Science and TechnologyKowloonChina

Personalised recommendations