Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 23, Issue 19, pp 19931–19939 | Cite as

Degradation of flubendiamide as affected by elevated CO2, temperature, and carbon mineralization rate in soil

Research Article


An experiment was conducted under three levels of atmospheric CO2 [ambient (398 ± 10 μmol mol−1), elevated (570 ± 10 μmol mol−1) and open condition], three levels of temperature (4, 25, and 40 °C) to study the degradation pattern of flubendiamide in soil and also carbon mineralization in soil. Results of this study revealed that flubendiamide was found to persist longer under outdoor condition (T1/2, 177.0 and 181.1 days) than ambient (T1/2, 168.4 and 172.3 days) and elevated condition (T1/2, 159.3 and 155.3 days) at 1 and 10 μg g−1 fortification level, respectively. Results also revealed that flubendiamide dissipated faster at 40 °C (T1/2, 189.4 days) than 25 °C (T1/2, 225.3 days). Slower dissipation was recorded at 4 °C (T1/2, 326.3 days). Thus, increased CO2 levels and temperature following global warming might adversely affect flubendiamide degradation in soil. Laboratory study on microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and carbon mineralization (Cmin) in soil revealed that in des-iodo flubendiamide-treated soils, MBC significantly increased up to 45 days and then decreased. Flubendiamide-treated soil showed a non-significantly decreasing trend of soil MBC with time up to the 15th day of incubation and after 15 days significantly decreased up to 90 days of incubation. In des-iodo flubendiamide-treated soil, the evolution of CO2 decreased up to 45 days, which was increased after 45 days up to 90 days. In flubendiamide-treated soil, CO2 evolution decreased up to 30 days and after 45 days, it increased up to 90 days.


Flubendiamide Elevated Ambient Degradation Microbial biomass carbon Carbon mineralization 



The first author thanks Director, IARI, New Delhi, and Head, Division of Agricultural Chemicals, IARI, New Delhi, for providing support and facilities for the research work.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Agricultural ChemicalsIARINew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.ICAR-National Organic Farming Research InstituteGangtokIndia

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