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Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 23, Issue 19, pp 19657–19666 | Cite as

Effects of bypass system on PCDD/F emission and chlorine circulation in cement kilns

  • Ming-Xiu Zhan
  • Jianying Fu
  • Tong ChenEmail author
  • Yeqing Li
  • Jiang Zhang
  • Xiao-Dong Li
  • Jian-Hua Yan
  • Alfons Buekens
Research Article

Abstract

A bypass at the kiln inlet allows the effective reduction of alkali chloride cycles and thus perhaps affects the emission of PCDD/Fs. Effects of bypass system on PCDD/F emission and chlorine circulation were studied in two typical dry cement kilns with 5000 ton/day clinker capacity in China and named CK1 and CK2, respectively. Firstly, the emission level of PCDD/Fs with the operation of bypass system was estimated in CK1, to certify that bypass system has a perfect adaption to the cement kiln regarding the PCDD/F emission even with the refuse derived fuel (RDF) as the replacement of fuel. On the other hand, the operating conditions in the CK2 were scrutinised by monitoring the concentrations of SO2, NH3 and HCl. In addition, the characteristics of raw meal, clinker, bag filter ash and bypass ash were also investigated by Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS), metal and chlorine analysis. The balance of chlorine showed that 18 % of the possible accumulated chlorine could be ejected from the cement kiln system when 2 % of kiln exhaust gas was extracted. Furthermore, the emission level of PCDD/Fs in the main flue gas also decreased from 0.037 ± 0.035 ng I-TEQ/Nm3 to 0.019 ± 0.007 ng I-TEQ/Nm3 with a reduction efficiency of 48.2 %. Most importantly, PCDD/F emission from the bypass system was proven to have rather minor effect on the total emission factor. The congener distributions of PCDD/Fs were also analysed in the flue gas and fly ash, before and after application of bypass system, to find cues to the formation mechanism.

Keywords

PCDD/Fs Bypass system Chlorine circulation Cement kiln RDF 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work is financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation (51476138), and the PaoYu-Kong International Fund supports one of the authors.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ming-Xiu Zhan
    • 1
  • Jianying Fu
    • 2
  • Tong Chen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yeqing Li
    • 3
  • Jiang Zhang
    • 3
  • Xiao-Dong Li
    • 1
  • Jian-Hua Yan
    • 1
  • Alfons Buekens
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Institute for Thermal Power EngineeringZhejiang UniversityHangzhou, ZhejiangChina
  2. 2.China United Engineering CorporationHangzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Huaxin Environment Engineering Co., LtdWuhanChina

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