Spatio-temporal variation in chemical characteristics of PM10 over Indo Gangetic Plain of India
The paper presents the spatio-temporal variation of chemical compositions (organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and water-soluble inorganic ionic components (WSIC)) of particulate matter (PM10) over three locations (Delhi, Varanasi, and Kolkata) of Indo Gangetic Plain (IGP) of India for the year 2011. The observational sites are chosen to represent the characteristics of upper (Delhi), middle (Varanasi), and lower (Kolkata) IGP regions as converse to earlier single-station observation. Average mass concentration of PM10 was observed higher in the middle IGP (Varanasi 206.2 ± 77.4 μg m−3) as compared to upper IGP (Delhi 202.3 ± 74.3 μg m−3) and lower IGP (Kolkata 171.5 ± 38.5 μg m−3). Large variation in OC values from 23.57 μg m−3 (Delhi) to 12.74 μg m−3 (Kolkata) indicating role of formation of secondary aerosols, whereas EC have not shown much variation with maximum concentration over Delhi (10.07 μg m−3) and minimum over Varanasi (7.72 μg m−3). As expected, a strong seasonal variation was observed in the mass concentration of PM10 as well as in its chemical composition over the three locations. Principal component analysis (PCA) identifies the contribution of secondary aerosol, biomass burning, fossil fuel combustion, vehicular emission, and sea salt to PM10 mass concentration at the observational sites of IGP, India. Backward trajectory analysis indicated the influence of continental type aerosols being transported from the Bay of Bengal, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Rajasthan, Gujarat, and surrounding areas to IGP region.
KeywordsPM10 Organic carbon Elemental carbon Water-soluble ions IGP
The authors are thankful to the Director, CSIR-NPL, New Delhi, and Head Radio and Atmospheric Sciences Division, CSIR-NPL, New Delhi, for their encouragement and support for this study. The authors also acknowledge Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi, for providing financial support for this study (under CSIR-EMPOWER Project: OLP-102132). Authors are thankful to the anonymous reviewers for their constructive suggestions to improve the manuscript.
- Delhi Statistical Handbook (2012) Registered vehicles in Delhi. Directorate of Economics and Statistics. Govt. of National Capital, Delhi. www.des.delhigovt.nic.in
- Draxler, R. R., Rolph, G. D. (2003) HYSPLIT (HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) Model access via NOAA ARL READY Website (http://www.arl.noaa.gov/ready/hysplit4.html). NOAA Air Resources Laboratory, Silver Spring, MD
- Pope CA, Dockery DW (2006) Health effects of fine particulate air pollution: lines that connect. JAPCA 56:709–742Google Scholar
- Ram K, Sarin MM, Sudheer AK, Rengarajan R (2012) Carbonaceous and secondary aerosols during wintertime fog and haze over urban sites in the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Aero Air Qual Res 12:359–370Google Scholar
- Schwartz J, Dockery DW, Neas LM (1996) Is daily mortality associated specifically with fine particle? J Air Pollut Control Assess 46:927–939Google Scholar
- Sen A, Ahammed YN, Banerjee T, Begam GR, Burah BP, Chatterjee A, Choudhuri AK, Dhir A, Das T, Dhayni PP, Deb NC, Gadi R, Ghosh S, Gupta A, Sharma KC, Khan AH, Kumari KM, Kumar M, Kuniyal JC, Lakhani A, Meena RK, Mahapatra PS, Naqvi SWA, Pal D, Pal S, Panda S, Rohtash, Saikia J, Saikia P, Sharma A, Sharma P, Saxena M, Shenoy DM, Vachaspati CV, Sharma SK, Mandal TK (2014) Atmospheric fine and coarse mode aerosols at different environments of India and the Bay of Bengal during winter-2014: implication of a coordinated campaign. Mapan-J Metro Soc India 29(4):273–284Google Scholar
- Sharma SK, Saxena M, Saud T, Korpole S, Mandal TK (2012b) Measurement of NH3, NO, NO2 and related particulates at urban sites of Indo Gangetic Plain (IGP) of India. J Sci Ind Res 71(5):360–362Google Scholar
- Sharma SK, Mandal TK, Sharma C, Kuniyal JC, Joshi R, Dhayani PP, Rohtash, Sen A, Ghayas H, Gupta NC, Arya BC, Kumar A, Sharma P, Saxena M, Sharma A (2014d) Measurements of particulate (PM2.5), BC and trace gases over the northwestern Himalayan region of India. Mapan - J Meteorol Soc India 29(4):243–253Google Scholar
- Song Y, Zhang Y, Xie S, Zeng L, Zheng M, Salmon LG, Shao M, Slanina S (2006) Source apportionment of PM2.5 in Beijing by positive matrix factorization. Atmos Environ 40(1):526–1537Google Scholar
- Tare V, Tripathi SN, Chinnam N, Srivastava AK, Dey S, Manar M, Kanawade VP, Aggarwal A, Kishore L, Lal RB, Sharma M (2006) Measurement of atmospheric parameters during Indian space research organization geosphere biosphere program land campaign II at a typical location in the Ganga Basin: 2 chemical properties. J Geophys Res 111:D23210. doi: 10.1029/2006/JD007279 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tiwari S, Chate DM, Pragya P, Ali K, Bisht DS (2012) Variations in Mass of the PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 during the Monsoon and the Winter at New Delhi. Aerosol Air Qual Res 12(1):20–29Google Scholar
- Waked A, Favez O, Alleman LY, Piot C, Petit JE, Delaunay T et al (2014) Source apportionment of PM10 in a north-western Europe regional urban backgroung site (Lens, France) using positive matrix factorization and including primary biogenic emission. Atmos Chem Phys 14:3325–3346CrossRefGoogle Scholar