Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 23, Issue 14, pp 14560–14566 | Cite as

Heavy metal levels in kiwifruit orchard soils and trees and its potential health risk assessment in Shaanxi, China

  • Jing Guo
  • Tianli Yue
  • Xiaotong Li
  • Yahong Yuan
Research Article


Concentrations of five heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Cd, Hg, and Pb) in orchard soils and kiwifruit tissues (root, twig, leave, fruit) collected from Shaanxi province in China were measured, and the potential health risk for human through the fruit consumption was assessed. The orchard soils were in no pollution for Cr, Cu, Hg, and Pb, with their pollution index (PI) ≤1, while 10.0 % of the soil samples were under Cd contamination. Furthermore, kiwifruit tended to have a higher Cd and Hg accumulation (as indicated by Biological Accumulation Coefficient) from soil and have a higher Cu and Hg translocation (as reflected by Biological Transfer Coefficient) to aboveground parts. From the human health point of view, the DIM and HRI values for all the fruit samples were within the safe limits, while for Cr, Cu, Cd, Hg, and Pb, about 22.5, 12.5, 52.5, 15.0, and 47.5 % of the fruit samples exceeded the national maximum permissible levels, respectively. These results showed that, although there was no possible health risk to consumers due to intake of studied kiwifruit fruits under the current consumption rate, the regular survey of heavy metal pollution levels should be performed for the kiwifruit in Shaanxi province and a strict management program should be established to reduce the amount of chemical fertilizers and pesticides used in fruit production in order to prevent the potential health risk.


Heavy metals Kiwifruit orchards Pollution index Daily intake Health risk Biological accumulation Biological transfer 



This study was supported by the Science and Technology Research and Development Program of Shaanxi Province, China (2015NY037, 2015SF278, 2014K13-15), National Natural Science Foundation of China (31371814), Scientific research start-up funding of Northwest A&F University (2013BSJJ081), Basic Research Program of Science and Technology (2013FY113400), and Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan special science and technology cooperation projects (K304021501).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jing Guo
    • 1
  • Tianli Yue
    • 1
  • Xiaotong Li
    • 1
  • Yahong Yuan
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Food Science and EngineeringNorthwest A&F UniversityYanglingChina

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