Subtype analysis of Giardia duodenalis isolates from municipal and domestic raw wastewaters in Iran
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A total of 54 raw wastewater samples collected from three urban treatment plants and two slaughterhouses in Tehran, Iran, were assessed for the presence of the Giardia cysts using immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies. To characterize the cysts at the molecular level, the three genetic loci were amplified and sequenced. The assemblages A (37.5 %) and E (58.3 %) were detected in livestock wastewater samples. Assemblage A, which is composed of only G. duodenalis genotype, was detected in 100 % of urban wastewater samples. The subassemblages A2, A3, A-I, A-II, and E3 were identified with β-giardin, triose phosphate isomerase, and glutamate dehydrogenase genes. This study is the first to report on G. duodenalis genotypes in aquatic environmental samples in Iran.
Keywordsβ-giardin gene (BG) Giardia duodenalis Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) Iran Triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) Wastewater
This work was supported by the Institute for Environmental Research (IER) and Center for Research of Endemic Parasites of Iran (CREPI), Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Iran (grant no. 92-02-160-23616). We thank Fatemeh Tarighi and Tahereh Rezaeian for their technical assistance.
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