Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 24, Issue 14, pp 12740–12747 | Cite as

Subtype analysis of Giardia duodenalis isolates from municipal and domestic raw wastewaters in Iran

  • Kareem Hatam-Nahavandi
  • Mehdi Mohebali
  • Amir-Hossein Mahvi
  • Hossein Keshavarz
  • Hamed Mirjalali
  • Sasan Rezaei
  • Ahmad-Reza Meamar
  • Mostafa RezaeianEmail author
Microbial Ecology of the Continental and Coastal Environments


A total of 54 raw wastewater samples collected from three urban treatment plants and two slaughterhouses in Tehran, Iran, were assessed for the presence of the Giardia cysts using immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies. To characterize the cysts at the molecular level, the three genetic loci were amplified and sequenced. The assemblages A (37.5 %) and E (58.3 %) were detected in livestock wastewater samples. Assemblage A, which is composed of only G. duodenalis genotype, was detected in 100 % of urban wastewater samples. The subassemblages A2, A3, A-I, A-II, and E3 were identified with β-giardin, triose phosphate isomerase, and glutamate dehydrogenase genes. This study is the first to report on G. duodenalis genotypes in aquatic environmental samples in Iran.


β-giardin gene (BG) Giardia duodenalis Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) Iran Triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) Wastewater 



This work was supported by the Institute for Environmental Research (IER) and Center for Research of Endemic Parasites of Iran (CREPI), Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Iran (grant no. 92-02-160-23616). We thank Fatemeh Tarighi and Tahereh Rezaeian for their technical assistance.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kareem Hatam-Nahavandi
    • 1
  • Mehdi Mohebali
    • 1
    • 2
  • Amir-Hossein Mahvi
    • 3
  • Hossein Keshavarz
    • 1
  • Hamed Mirjalali
    • 4
    • 5
  • Sasan Rezaei
    • 1
  • Ahmad-Reza Meamar
    • 6
  • Mostafa Rezaeian
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public HealthTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Center for Research of Endemic Parasites of Iran (CREPI)Tehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, and Center for Water Quality Research, Institute for Environmental Research (IER)Tehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  4. 4.Gastroenterology and Liver Disease Research Center, Research institute for Gastroentrology and Liver DiseasesShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  5. 5.Foodborne and Waterborne Diseases Research Center, Research institute for Gastroentrology and Liver DiseasesShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  6. 6.Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of MedicineIran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

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