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The applied indicators of water quality may underestimate the risk of chemical exposure to human population in reservoirs utilized for human supply—Southern Brazil

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Abstract

The knowledge concerning associations between chronic chemical exposure and many disorders with complex etiology involving gene–environment interactions is increasing, and new methods must be developed to improve water quality monitoring. The complexity of chemical mixtures in polluted aquatic environments makes the evaluation of toxic potential in those sites difficult, but the use of biomarkers and bioindicators has been recognized as a reliable tool to assess risk of exposure to biota and also the human population. In order to evaluate the use of fish and biomarkers to assess toxic potential and bioavailability of chemicals in human-related hydric resources, an in situ experiment was accomplished in two water reservoirs designated for human supply, which were previously evaluated by the local environmental regulatory agency through a set of physical, chemical, and classical biological parameters. Molecular, biochemical, and morphological biomarkers were performed in caged Oreochromis niloticus kept for 6 months in the studied reservoirs to assess potentially useful biomarkers to evaluate the quality of water for human supply. Chemical analysis of toxic metals in liver and muscle and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bile was considered to assess the bioavailability of pollutants and highlight human activity impact. The reservoir previously classified by a governmental agency as less impacted presented more risk of exposure to biota. These results were supported by chemical analysis, vitellogenin expression, histopathological findings (gonads, liver, and gills), as well as indicators of neurotoxic effects and oxidative stress in liver. The inclusion of some biomarkers as parameters in regulatory monitoring programs in reservoirs designated for human supply is strongly suggested to evaluate the risks of exposure to the human population. Thus, a revision of the traditional biological and physicochemical analysis utilized to establish the conditions of water quality is necessary.

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Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Council of Science and Technology—CNPq, Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Educational Personnel—CAPES, and State Agency of Science and Technology of Parana—Araucaria Foundation. The authors thank the Sanitation Company of Parana—SANEPAR for logistic support in the reservoirs and the Center of Electron Microscopy at Federal University of Parana for technical support.

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Correspondence to Ciro Alberto de Oliveira Ribeiro.

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Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues

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dos Santos, D.R., Yamamoto, F.Y., Filipak Neto, F. et al. The applied indicators of water quality may underestimate the risk of chemical exposure to human population in reservoirs utilized for human supply—Southern Brazil. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23, 9625–9639 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-5995-0

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Keywords

  • Biomarkers
  • Transplanted fish
  • Aquatic pollution
  • Water quality
  • Water reservoir