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Diurnal variability and biogeochemical reactivity of mercury species in an extreme high-altitude lake ecosystem of the Bolivian Altiplano

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Abstract

Methylation and demethylation represent major transformation pathways regulating the net production of methylmercury (MMHg). Very few studies have documented Hg reactivity and transformation in extreme high-altitude lake ecosystems. Mercury (Hg) species concentrations (IHg, MMHg, Hg°, and DMHg) and in situ Hg methylation (M) and MMHg demethylation (D) potentials were determined in water, sediment, floating organic aggregates, and periphyton compartments of a shallow productive Lake of the Bolivian Altiplano (Uru Uru Lake, 3686 m). Samples were collected during late dry season (October 2010) and late wet season (May 2011) at a north (NS) and a south (SS) site of the lake, respectively. Mercury species concentrations exhibited significant diurnal variability as influenced by the strong diurnal biogeochemical gradients. Particularly high methylated mercury concentrations (0.2 to 4.5 ng L−1 for MMHgT) were determined in the water column evidencing important Hg methylation in this ecosystem. Methylation and D potentials range were, respectively, <0.1–16.5 and <0.2–68.3 % day−1 and were highly variable among compartments of the lake, but always higher during the dry season. Net Hg M indicates that the influence of urban and mining effluent (NS) promotes MMHg production in both water (up to 0.45 ng MMHg L−1 day−1) and sediment compartments (2.0 to 19.7 ng MMHg g−1 day−1). While the sediment compartment appears to represent a major source of MMHg in this shallow ecosystem, floating organic aggregates (dry season, SS) and Totora’s periphyton (wet season, NS) were found to act as a significant source (5.8 ng MMHg g−1 day−1) and a sink (−2.1 ng MMHg g−1 day−1) of MMHg, respectively. This work demonstrates that high-altitude productive lake ecosystems can promote MMHg formation in various compartments supporting recent observations of high Hg contents in fish and water birds.

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Acknowledgments

This work is a contribution to the COMIBOL project (INSU CNRS/IRD EC2CO Program) and LAPACHAMAMA project (ANR CESA program, No. ANR-13-CESA-0015-01). We wish to thank J.L. Duprey, A. Castillo, M. Claure (IRD Bolivia), and Don German Calizaya (Fishermen Association, Machacamarca, Bolivia) for their help and assistance during the field campaigns.

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Correspondence to D. Amouroux.

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Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues

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Alanoca, L., Amouroux, D., Monperrus, M. et al. Diurnal variability and biogeochemical reactivity of mercury species in an extreme high-altitude lake ecosystem of the Bolivian Altiplano. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23, 6919–6933 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-5917-1

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Keywords

  • Mercury
  • Biogeochemistry
  • Altiplano
  • Lake
  • Methylation
  • Demethylation
  • Bolivia