Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 23, Issue 7, pp 6563–6573 | Cite as

Testing the relationships between energy consumption, CO2 emissions, and economic growth in 24 African countries: a panel ARDL approach

  • Simplice AsonguEmail author
  • Ghassen El Montasser
  • Hassen Toumi
Research Article


This study complements existing literature by examining the nexus between energy consumption (EC), CO2 emissions (CE), and economic growth (GDP; gross domestic product) in 24 African countries using a panel autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach. The following findings are established. First, there is a long-run relationship between EC, CE, and GDP. Second, a long-term effect from CE to GDP and EC is apparent, with reciprocal paths. Third, the error correction mechanisms are consistently stable. However, in cases of disequilibrium, only EC can be significantly adjusted to its long-run relationship. Fourth, there is a long-run causality running from GDP and CE to EC. Fifth, we find causality running from either CE or both CE and EC to GDP, and inverse causal paths are observable. Causality from EC to GDP is not strong, which supports the conservative hypothesis. Sixth, the causal direction from EC to GDP remains unobservable in the short term. By contrast, the opposite path is observable. There are also no short-run causalities from GDP, or EC, or EC, and GDP to EC. Policy implications are discussed.


Energy consumption CO2 emissions Economic growth Africa 

JEL classification

C52 O40 O55 Q43 Q50 



The authors are highly indebted to the editor and referees for constructive comments.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Simplice Asongu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ghassen El Montasser
    • 2
  • Hassen Toumi
    • 3
  1. 1.African Governance and Development InstituteYaoundéCameroon
  2. 2.Department of Quantitative Methods, École Supérieure de Commerce de TunisUniversity of ManoubaManoubaTunisia
  3. 3.Faculty of Economics and ManagementUniversity of SfaxSfaxTunisia

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