Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 23, Issue 6, pp 5782–5794 | Cite as

Depth profile of persistent and emerging organic pollutants upstream of the Three Gorges Dam gathered in 2012/2013

  • Dominik DeyerlingEmail author
  • Jingxian Wang
  • Yonghong Bi
  • Chengrong Peng
  • Gerd Pfister
  • Bernhard Henkelmann
  • Karl–Werner Schramm
Research Article

Abstract

Persistent and emerging organic pollutants were sampled in September 2012 and 2013 at a sampling site in front of the Three Gorges Dam near Maoping (China) in a water depth between 11 and 61 m to generate a depth profile of analytes. A novel compact water sampling system with self-packed glass cartridges was employed for the on-site enrichment of approximately 300 L of water per sample to enable the detection of low analytes levels in the picogram per liter-scale in the large water body. The overall performance of the sampling system was acceptable for the qualitative detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), perfluoroalkylic acids (PFAAs), pharmaceutical residues and polar pesticides. Strongly particle-associated analytes like PAHs and PCBs resided mainly in the glass wool filter of the sampling system, whereas all other compounds have mainly been enriched on the XAD-resin of the self-packed glass cartridges. The sampling results revealed qualitative information on the presence, depth distribution and origin of the investigated compounds. Although the depth profile of PAHs, PCBs, OCPs, and PFAAs appeared to be homogeneous, pharmaceuticals and polar pesticides were detected in distinct different patterns with water depth. Source analysis with diagnostic ratios for PAHs revealed their origin to be pyrogenic (burning of coal, wood and grass). In contrast, most PCBs and OCPs had to be regarded as legacy pollutants which have been released into the environment in former times and still remain present due to their persistence. The abundance of emerging organic pollutants could be confirmed, and their most abundant compounds could be identified as perfluorooctanoic acid, diclofenac and atrazine among investigated PFAAs, pharmaceuticals and polar pesticides, respectively.

Keywords

Monitoring Depth profile Persistent organic compounds Perfluoroalkylic acids Pharmaceutical residues Environmental fate 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We like to thank Silke Bernhöft and Felix Antritter for the support during laboratory cleanup. Thanks to Claudia Tschammler and Christian Franik for improving the manuscript. This project was gratefully funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF, 02WT1130).

Supplementary material

11356_2015_5805_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (150 kb)
ESM 1 Supplementary data associated with this article can be found in the online version. (PDF 149 kb)

References

  1. Ahrens L, Yeung LWY, Taniyasu S, Lam PKS, Yamashita N (2011) Partitioning of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) between water and sediment. Chemosphere 85:731–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ali U, Syed JH, Junwen L, Sánchez-García L, Malik RN, Chaudhry MJI, Arshad M, Li J, Zhang G, Jones KC (2014) Assessing the relationship and influence of black carbon on distribution status of organochlorines in the coastal sediments from Pakistan. Environ Pollut 190:82–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bao L-J, Maruya KA, Snyder SA, Zeng EY (2012) China’s water pollution by persistent organic pollutants. Environ Pollut 163:100–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bergmann A et al (2012) The Yangtze-Hydro Project: a Chinese–German environmental program. Environ Sci Pollut Res 19:1341–1344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bu Q, Wang B, Huang J, Deng S, Yu G (2013) Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the aquatic environment in China: a review. J Hazard Mater 262:189–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Campbell CG, Borglin SE, Green FB, Grayson A, Wozei E, Stringfellow WT (2006) Biologically directed environmental monitoring, fate, and transport of estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds in water: a review. Chemosphere 65:1265–1280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chang X, Meyer MT, Liu X, Zhao Q, Chen H, J-a C, Qiu Z, Yang L, Cao J, Shu W (2010) Determination of antibiotics in sewage from hospitals, nursery and slaughter house, wastewater treatment plant and source water in Chongqing region of Three Gorge Reservoir in China. Environ Pollut 158:1444–1450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. CNEMC (2011) Bulletin on the Ecological and Environmental Monitoring Results of the Three Gorges Project 2011, China National Environmental Monitoring CenterGoogle Scholar
  9. Daughton CG (2004) Non-regulated water contaminants: emerging research. Environ Impact Assess Rev 24:711–732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Deyerling D, Wang J, Hu W, Westrich B, Peng C, Bi Y, Henkelmann B, Schramm K-W (2014) PAH distribution and mass fluxes in the Three Gorges Reservoir after impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam. Sci Environ 491–492:123–130Google Scholar
  11. Duan Y-P, Meng X-Z, Wen Z-H, Chen L (2013) Acidic pharmaceuticals in domestic wastewater and receiving water from hyper-urbanization city of China (Shanghai): environmental release and ecological risk. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:108–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. EPA (2008) Facts Sheet on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, United States Environmental Protection AgencyGoogle Scholar
  13. Floehr T, Xiao H, Scholz-Starke B, Wu L, Hou J, Yin D, Zhang X, Ji R, Yuan X, Ottermanns R, Roß-Nickoll M, Schäffer A, Hollert H (2013) Solution by dilution?—A review on the pollution status of the Yangtze River. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:6934–6971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gao L, Shi Y, Li W, Niu H, Liu J, Cai Y (2012) Occurrence of antibiotics in eight sewage treatment plants in Beijing, China. Chemosphere 86:665–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Heeb F, Singer H, Pernet-Coudrier B, Qi W, Liu H, Longrée P, Müller B, Berg M (2012) Organic micropollutants in rivers downstream of the Megacity Beijing: sources and mass fluxes in a large-scale wastewater irrigation system. Environ Sci Technol 46:8680–8688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hobbs JJ (2008) World Regional Geography. Cengage LearningGoogle Scholar
  17. Jia H, Liu L, Sun Y, Li Y-F (2011) Endosulfan in China: Usage, Emissions and Residues. InTechGoogle Scholar
  18. Kannan K, Reiner JL, Yun SH, Perrotta EE, Tao L, Johnson-Restrepo B, Rodan BD (2005) Polycyclic musk compounds in higher trophic level aquatic organisms and humans from the United States. Chemosphere 61:693–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Liu J-L, Wong M-H (2013) Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs): a review on environmental contamination in China. Environ Int 59:208–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Müller A, Schulz W, Ruck WKL, Weber WH (2011) A new approach to data evaluation in the non-target screening of organic trace substances in water analysis. Chemosphere 85:1211–1219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Pandelova M, Stanev I, Henkelmann B, Lenoir D, Schramm K-W (2009) Correlation of PCDD/F and PCB at combustion experiments using wood and hospital waste. Influence of (NH4)2SO4 as additive on PCDD/F and PCB emissions. Chemosphere 75:685–691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Qi P, Wang Y, Mu J, Wang J (2011) Aquatic predicted no-effect-concentration derivation for perfluorooctane sulfonic acid. Environ Toxicol Chem 30:836–842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Qi W, Müller B, Pernet-Coudrier B, Singer H, Liu H, Qu J, Berg M (2014) Organic micropollutants in the Yangtze River: seasonal occurrence and annual loads. Sci Total Environ 472:789–799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sánchez-García L, Cato I, Gustafsson Ö (2010) Evaluation of the influence of black carbon on the distribution of PAHs in sediments from along the entire Swedish continental shelf. Mar Chem 119:44–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Seth R, Mackay D, Muncke J (1999) Estimating the organic carbon partition coefficient and its variability for hydrophobic chemicals. Environ Sci Technol 33:2390–2394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Stahl T, Mattern D, Brunn H (2011) Toxicology of perfluorinated compounds. Environ Sci Europe 23:38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Tang JYM, McCarty S, Glenn E, Neale PA, Warne MSJ, Escher BI (2013) Mixture effects of organic micropollutants present in water: towards the development of effect-based water quality trigger values for baseline toxicity. Water Res 47:3300–3314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Tang JYM, Busetti F, Charrois JWA, Escher BI (2014) Which chemicals drive biological effects in wastewater and recycled water? Water Res 60:289–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Tobiszewski M, Namieśnik J (2012) PAH diagnostic ratios for the identification of pollution emission sources. Environ Pollut 162:110–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. UNEP (2009) Governments unite to step-up reduction on global DDT reliance and add nine new chemicals under international treatyGoogle Scholar
  31. Wang B, Iino F, Yu G, Huang J, Morita M (2010) The pollution status of emerging persistent organic pollutants in China. Environ Eng Sci 27:215–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wang B, Cao M, Zhu H, Chen J, Wang L, Liu G, Gu X, Lu X (2013a) Distribution of perfluorinated compounds in surface water from Hanjiang River in Wuhan, China. Chemosphere 93:468–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wang J, Bi Y, Pfister G, Henkelmann B, Zhu K, Schramm K-W (2009) Determination of PAH, PCB, and OCP in water from the Three Gorges Reservoir accumulated by semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD). Chemosphere 75:1119–1127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wang J, Bi Y, Pfister G, Henkelmann B, Zhu K, Schramm K-W (2013b) Erratum to “Determination of PAH, PCB, and OCP in water from the Three Gorges Reservoir accumulated by semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD)” [Chemosphere 75 (2009) 1119–1127]. Chemosphere 90:2483–2484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wang J, Bernhöft S, Pfister G, Schramm K-W (2014) Water exposure assessment of aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists in Three Gorges Reservoir, China using SPMD-based virtual organisms. Sci Total Environ 496:26–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Weber J, Halsall CJ, Muir D, Teixeira C, Small J, Solomon K, Hermanson M, Hung H, Bidleman T (2010) Endosulfan, a global pesticide: a review of its fate in the environment and occurrence in the Arctic. Sci Total Environ 408:2966–2984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wode F, Reilich C, van Baar P, Dünnbier U, Jekel M, Reemtsma T (2012) Multiresidue analytical method for the simultaneous determination of 72 micropollutants in aqueous samples with ultra high performance liquid chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1270:118–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wolf A, Bergmann A, Wilken R-D, Gao X, Bi Y, Chen H, Schüth C (2013) Occurrence and distribution of organic trace substances in waters from the Three Gorges Reservoir, China. Environ Sci Pollut Res, 1-16Google Scholar
  39. Xie S, Wang T, Liu S, Jones KC, Sweetman AJ, Lu Y (2013) Industrial source identification and emission estimation of perfluorooctane sulfonate in China. Environ Int 52:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Xing Y, Lu Y, Dawson RW, Shi Y, Zhang H, Wang T, Liu W, Ren H (2005) A spatial temporal assessment of pollution from PCBs in China. Chemosphere 60:731–739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Xu X, Tan Y, Yang G, Li H, Su W (2011) Impacts of China’s Three Gorges Dam Project on net primary productivity in the reservoir area. Sci Total Environ 409:4656–4662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Xu X, Tan Y, Yang G (2013) Environmental impact assessments of the Three Gorges Project in China: issues and interventions. Earth-Sci Rev 124:115–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Yan Q, Gao X, Chen Y-P, Peng X-Y, Zhang Y-X, Gan X-M, Zi C-F, Guo J-S (2014) Occurrence, fate and ecotoxicological assessment of pharmaceutically active compounds in wastewater and sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Chongqing, the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Sci Total Environ 470–471:618–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Yang S, Xu F, Wu F, Wang S, Zheng B (2014) Development of PFOS and PFOA criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life in China. Sci Total Environ 470–471:677–683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Yang Y, Cao X, Zhang M, Wang J (2015) Occurrence and distribution of endocrine-disrupting compounds in the Honghu Lake and East Dongting Lake along the Central Yangtze River, China. Environ Sci Pollut Res, 1-9Google Scholar
  46. Yang Z, Shen Z, Gao F, Tang Z, Niu J (2009) Occurrence and possible sources of polychlorinated biphenyls in surface sediments from the Wuhan reach of the Yangtze River, China. Chemosphere 74:1522–1530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Yunker MB, Macdonald RW, Vingarzan R, Mitchell RH, Goyette D, Sylvestre S (2002) PAHs in the Fraser River basin: a critical appraisal of PAH ratios as indicators of PAH source and composition. Org Geochem 33:489–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zhang L, Shi S, Dong L, Zhang T, Zhou L, Huang Y (2011) Concentrations and possible sources of polychlorinated biphenyls in the surface water of the Yangtze River Delta, China. Chemosphere 85:399–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Zhang X-X, Zhang T, Fang HP (2009) Antibiotic resistance genes in water environment. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 82:397–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Zhou H, Zhang Q, Wang X, Zhang Q, Ma L, Zhan Y (2014) Systematic screening of common wastewater-marking pharmaceuticals in urban aquatic environments: implications for environmental risk control. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21:7113–7129CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dominik Deyerling
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Jingxian Wang
    • 1
    • 3
  • Yonghong Bi
    • 3
  • Chengrong Peng
    • 3
  • Gerd Pfister
    • 2
  • Bernhard Henkelmann
    • 2
  • Karl–Werner Schramm
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.Technische Universität München, Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan für ErnährungLandnutzung und Umwelt, Lehrstuhl für analytische LebensmittelchemieFreisingGermany
  2. 2.Helmholtz Zentrum München – German Research Center for Environmental HealthMolecular EXposomicsNeuherbergGermany
  3. 3.The State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of HydrobiologyChinese Academy of SciencesWuhanChina
  4. 4.Department für Biowissenschaften, Technische Universität München, Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan für ErnährungLandnutzung und UmweltFreisingGermany

Personalised recommendations