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Assessing trace metal pollution through high spatial resolution of surface sediments along the Tunis Gulf coast (southwestern Mediterranean)

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Abstract

Tunis Gulf (northern Tunisia, Mediterranean Sea) is of great economic importance due to its abundant fish resources. Rising urbanization and industrial development in the surrounding area have resulted in an increase in untreated effluents and domestic waste discharged into the gulf via its tributary streams. Metal (Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn) and major element (Mg, Ca, Na, and K) concentrations were measured in the grain fine fraction <63 μm by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results showed varying spatial distribution patterns for metals, indicating complex origins and controlling factors such as anthropogenic activities. Sediment metal concentrations are ranked as follows: Fe > Mg > Zn > Mn > Pb > Cu > Cd > Hg. Metals tend to be concentrated in proximity to source points, suggesting that the mineral enrichment elements come from sewage of coastal towns and pollution from industrial dumps and located along local rivers, lagoons, and on the gulf shore itself. This study showed that trace metal and major element concentrations in surface sediments along the Tunis Gulf shores were lower than those found in other coastal areas of the Mediterranean Sea.

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Acknowledgments

This study was made possible by the Tunisian (Institut National des Sciences et Technologies de la Mer, Laboratoire Milieu Marin) - French (Chrono-Environment Laboratory, Besançon, UMR CNRS 6249.) Cooperation Project. We would like to thank all the participants for their active participation and valuable contributions.

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Correspondence to Lotfi Aleya.

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Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues

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Ennouri, R., Zaaboub, N., Fertouna-Bellakhal, M. et al. Assessing trace metal pollution through high spatial resolution of surface sediments along the Tunis Gulf coast (southwestern Mediterranean). Environ Sci Pollut Res 23, 5322–5334 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-5775-x

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Keywords

  • Tunis Gulf
  • Surface sediments
  • Metal contamination
  • AQUARISK model