Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 23, Issue 6, pp 5618–5626 | Cite as

Concentrations and dissipation of difenoconazole and fluxapyroxad residues in apples and soil, determined by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

  • Min He
  • Chunhong Jia
  • Ercheng Zhao
  • Li Chen
  • Pingzhong Yu
  • Junjie Jing
  • Yongquan ZhengEmail author
Research Article

Abstract

A new combined difenoconazole and fluxapyroxad fungicide formulation, as an 11.7 % suspension concentrate (SC), has been introduced as part of a resistance management strategy. The dissipation of difenoconazole and fluxapyroxad applied to apples and the residues remaining in the apples were determined. The 11.7 % SC was sprayed onto apple trees and soil in Beijing, Shandong, and Anhui provinces, China, at an application rate of 118 g a.i. ha−1, then the dissipation of difenoconazole and fluxapyroxad was monitored. The residual difenoconazole and fluxapyroxad concentrations were determined by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The difenoconazole half-lives in apples and soil were 6.2–9.5 and 21.0–27.7 days, respectively. The fluxapyroxad half-lives in apples and soil were 9.4–12.6 and 10.3–36.5 days, respectively. Difenoconazole and fluxapyroxad residues in apples and soil after the 11.7 % SC had been sprayed twice and three times, with 10 days between applications, at 78 and 118 g a.i. ha−1 were measured. Representative apple and soil samples were collected after the last treatment, at preharvest intervals of 14, 21, and 28 days. The difenoconazole residue concentrations in apples and soil were 0.002–0.052 and 0.002–0.298 mg kg−1, respectively. The fluxapyroxad residue concentrations in apples and soil were 0.002–0.093 and 0.008–1.219 mg kg−1, respectively. The difenoconazole and fluxapyroxad residue concentrations in apples were lower than the maximum residue limits (0.5 and 0.8 mg kg−1, respectively). An application rate of 78 g a.i. ha−1 is therefore recommended to ensure that treated apples can be considered safe for humans to consume.

Keywords

Difenoconazole Fluxapyroxad Residue Dissipation Apple Soil 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Special Fund for Agro-scientific Research in the Public Interest (No. 201303027) and the Youth Research Foundation of Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Science (No. QNJJ201210).

References

  1. Banerjee K, Oulkar DP, Patil SH, Dasgupta S, Adsule PG (2008) Degradation kinetics and safety evaluation of tetraconazole and difenoconazole residues in grape. Pest Manag Sci 64:283–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bhat M, Wani AA, Mukhtar M, Sherwani A, Bhat AH, Showkat A (2015) Dissipation patterns of the fungicide difenoconazole (25% EC) in apples grown in Kashmir. J Environ Sci Health B 187Google Scholar
  3. Cheng YP, Dong FS, Liu XG, Xu J, Meng W, Liu N, Chen ZL, Tao Y, Zheng YQ (2014) Simultaneous determination of fipronil and its major metabolites in corn and soil by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Methods 6:1788–1795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dedola F, Cabizza M, Satta M (2014) Determination of 28 pesticides applied on two tomato cultivars with a different surface/weight ratio of the berries, using a multiresidue GC-MS/MS method. J Environ Sci Health, Part B 49:671–678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dong FS, Liu XA, Li J, Cheng L, Zhang CP, Jing-Jingan, Zheng YQ (2010) Determination of 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid residues in wheat and soil by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. J AOAC Int 93:1013–1019Google Scholar
  6. Dong FS, Chen X, Liu XG, Xu J, Li YB, Shan WL, Zheng YQ (2012) Simultaneous determination of five pyrazole fungicides in cereals, vegetables and fruits using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1262:98–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gulkowska A, Buerge IJ, Poiger T (2014) Online solid phase extraction LC-MS/MS method for the analysis of succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor fungicides and its applicability to surface water samples. Anal Bioanal Chem 406:6419–6427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Guo C, Li JZ, Guo BY, Wang HL (2010) Determination and safety evaluation of difenoconazole residues in apples and soils. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 85:427–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hingmire S, Oulkar DP, Utture SC, Shabeer TPA, Banerjee K (2015) Residue analysis of fipronil and difenoconazole in okra by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and their food safety evaluation. Food Chem 176:145–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Huan ZB, Xu Z, Lv DZ, Xie DF, Luo JH (2013) Dissipation and residues of difenoconazole and azoxystrobin in bananas and soil in two agro-climatic zones of china. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 91:734–738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Koch RL, Burkness EC, Hutchison WD, Rabaey TL (2005) Efficacy of systemic insecticide seed treatments for protection of early-growth-stage snap beans from bean leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) foliar feeding. Crop Prot 24:734–742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Li MM, Liu XG, Dong FS, Xu J, Kong ZQ, Li YB, Zheng YQ (2013) Simultaneous determination of cyflumetofen and its main metabolite residues in samples of plant and animal origin using multi-walled carbon nanotubes in dispersive solid-phase extraction and ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1300:95–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Liang HW, Li L, Li W, Wu YJ, Zhou ZQ, Liu FM (2011) Dissipation and residue of dimethomorph in pepper and soil under field conditions. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 74:1331–1335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mukhopadhyay S, Das S, Bhattacharyya A, Pal S (2011) Dissipation study of difenoconazole in/on chili fruit and soil in India. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 87:54–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ngugi HK, Esker PD, Scherm H (2011) Meta-analysis to determine the effects of plant disease management measures: review and case studies on soybean and apple. Phytopathology 101:31–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Reuveni M, Sheglov D, Sheglov N, Ben-Arie R, Prusky D (2002) Sensitivity of red delicious apple fruit at various phenologic stages to infection by Alternaria alternata and moldy-core control. Eur J Plant Pathol 108:421–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Soler C, Soriano JM, Manes J (2009) Apple-products phytochemicals and processing: a review. Nat Prod Commun 4:659–670Google Scholar
  18. Stowik-Borowiec M, Szpyrka E, Walorczyk S (2015) Gas chromatographic determination of pesticide residues in white mustard. Food Chem 173:997–1005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Strathmann S, Walker S, Barnes J (2011) Fluxapyroxad: a new broad-spectrum fungicide. Phytopathology 101:S172–S172Google Scholar
  20. Veloukas T, Markoglou AN, Karaoglanidis GS (2013) Differential effect of SdhB gene mutations on the sensitivity to SDHI fungicides in botrytis cinerea. Plant Dis 97:118–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Wang ZH, Yang T, Qin DM, Gong Y, Ji Y (2008) Determination and dynamics of difenoconazole residues in Chinese cabbage and soil. Chin Chem Lett 19:969–972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Wang K, Wu JX, Zhang HY (2012a) Dissipation of difenoconazole in rice, paddy soil, and paddy water under field conditions. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 86:111–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Wang L, Zhao PY, Zhang FZ, Li YJ, Du FP, Pan CP (2012b) Dissipation and residue behavior of emamectin benzoate on apple and cabbage field application. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 78:260–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Zhang ZY, Jiang W, Jian Q, Song WC, Zheng ZT, Wang DL, Liu XJ (2015) Residues and dissipation kinetics of triazole fungicides difenoconazole and propiconazole in wheat and soil in Chinese fields. Food Chem 168:396–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Min He
    • 1
    • 2
  • Chunhong Jia
    • 1
  • Ercheng Zhao
    • 1
  • Li Chen
    • 1
  • Pingzhong Yu
    • 1
  • Junjie Jing
    • 1
  • Yongquan Zheng
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Plant and Environmental ProtectionBeijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry ScienceBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant ProtectionChinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations