Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 23, Issue 11, pp 10494–10503 | Cite as

Trace metals in surface sediments of the Taiwan Strait: geochemical characteristics and environmental indication

  • Xuelu Gao
  • Fengxia Zhou
  • Hon-Kit Lui
  • Jiann-Yuh Lou
  • Chen-Tung Arthur Chen
  • Wen Zhuang
Recent sediments: environmental chemistry, ecotoxicology and engineering

Abstract

The concentration and geochemical fractionation of six trace metals related with environmental quality assessment, namely Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn, in 30 surface sediments from both inshore and offshore areas of the Taiwan Strait were measured to investigate their distribution characteristics, evaluate their potential mobility, and assess their pollution status. The geoaccumulation index results indicated that, on average, the studied metals presented an order of Cd > Pb > Ni > Zn > Cu > Cr and were practically in uncontaminated status except Cd. The results of the sequential extraction analysis indicated that, on average, the studied metals were mostly accumulated in residual fraction except Cd whose concentration was the highest in the acid soluble fraction presenting a high risk to the environment, and their mobility decreased in the sequence of Cd > Pb > Ni > Cu > Zn > Cr. Based on the mean probable effect level quotients, the combination of the studied metals had an 8 % probability of being toxic at two sampling sites and had a 21 % probability of being toxic at the rest of sites. The spatial distribution of the studied metals in total concentrations and different geochemical fractions corroborated the previous findings about the possible sediment transportation routes in and around the Taiwan Strait.

Keywords

Sequential extraction Chemical fractionation Environmental assessment Marginal sea Marine pollution 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was co-supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan (MOST 103-2611-M-110-010, NSC 101-2611-M-110-010-MY3), the Taiwan’s Aim for the Top University Program (04C030204), the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA11020102), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41376083). The assistance of Ms. Hui Gao in the sample preparation is greatly appreciated. Our thanks also go to three anonymous reviewers who provided constructive comments which helped improve the manuscript.

References

  1. Anderson RF, Mawji E, Cutter GA, Measures CI, Jeandel C (2014) GEOTRACES: changing the way we explore ocean chemistry. Oceanography 27(1):50–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chen CTA (2007) Non-radioactive ocean pollution. In: Nihoul JCJ, Chen CTA (eds) Oceanography, vol 1. EOLSS Publishers, Oxford, pp 410–433Google Scholar
  3. Chen CT, Selvaraj K (2008) Evaluation of elemental enrichments in surface sediments off southwestern Taiwan. Environ Geol 54:1333–1346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen CTA, Sheu DD (2006) Does the Taiwan warm current originate in the Taiwan Strait in wintertime? J Geophys Res 111:C04005Google Scholar
  5. Chen CTA, Wang SL (1999) Carbon, alkalinity and nutrient budget on the East China Sea Continental Shelf. J Geophys Res 104:20675–20686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen CTA, Wang SL (2006) A salinity front in the southern East China Sea separating the Chinese coastal and Taiwan Strait waters from Kuroshio waters. Cont Shelf Res 26:1636–1653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen CW, Kao CM, Chen CF, Dong CD (2007) Distribution and accumulation of heavy metals in the sediments of Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan. Chemosphere 66:1431–1440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen CTA, Jan S, Huang TH, Tseng YH (2010) Spring of no Kuroshio intrusion in the southern Taiwan Strait. J Geophys Res 115:C08011Google Scholar
  9. Chung SW, Jan S, Liu KK (2001) Nutrient fluxes through the Taiwan Strait in spring and summer 1999. J Oceanogr 57:47–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chung CY, Chen JJ, Lee CG, Chiu CY, Lai WL, Liao SW (2011) Integrated estuary management for diffused sediment pollution in Dapeng Bay and neighboring rivers (Taiwan). Environ Monit Assess 173:499–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fang T-H, Hong E (1999) Mechanisms influencing the spatial distribution of trace metals in surficial sediments off the south-western Taiwan. Mar Pollut Bull 38:1026–1037CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gao XL, Chen CTA (2012) Heavy metal pollution status in surface sediments of the coastal Bohai Bay. Water Res 46(6):1901–1911CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gao XL, Li PM (2012) Concentration and fractionation of trace metals in surface sediments of intertidal Bohai Bay, China. Mar Pollut Bull 64(8):1529–1536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gao XL, Chen CTA, Wang G, Xue QZ, Tang C, Chen SY (2010) Environmental status of Daya Bay surface sediments inferred from a sequential extraction technique. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 86(3):369–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gao XL, Zhou FX, Chen CTA (2014) Pollution status of the Bohai Sea, China: an overview of the environmental quality assessment related trace metals. Environ Int 62:12–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gao XL, Zhou FX, Chen CTA (2015a) Trace metals in the suspended particulate matter of the Yellow River (Huanghe) estuary: concentrations, potential mobility, contamination assessment and the fluxes into the Bohai Sea. Cont Shelf Res 104:25–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gao XL, Zhuang W, Chen CTA, Zhang Y (2015b) Sediment quality of the SW coastal Laizhou Bay, Bohai Sea, China: a comprehensive assessment based on the analysis of heavy metals. PLoS ONE 10(3):e0122190. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0122190 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Han AQ, Dai MH, Gan JP, Kao SJ, Zhao XZ, Jan S, Li Q, Lin H, Chen CTA, Wang L, Hu JY, Wang LF, Gong F (2013) Inter-shelf nutrient transport from the East China Sea as a major nutrient source supporting winter primary production on the northeast South China Sea shelf. Biogeosciences 10:8159–8170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. He XQ, Bai Y, Chen CTA, Hsin YC, Wu CR, Zhai WD, Liu ZL, Gong F (2014) Satellite views of the episodic terrestrial material transport to the southern Okinawa Trough driven by typhoon. J Geophys Res Oceans 119:4490–4504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hong HS, Chen CTA, Jiang YW, Lou JY, Chen ZZ, Zhu J (2011) Source water of two-pronged northward flow in the southern Taiwan Strait in summer. J Oceanogr 67:385–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hsu F-H, Su C-C, Wang C-H, Lin S, Liu J, Huh C-A (2014) Accumulation of terrestrial organic carbon on an active continental margin offshore southwestern Taiwan: source-to-sink pathways of river-borne organic particles. J Asian Earth Sci 91:163–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hu JY, Kawamura H, Li CY, Hong HS, Jiang YW (2010) Review on current and seawater volume transport through the Taiwan Strait. J Oceanogr 66:591–610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hu BQ, Li J, Zhao JT, Yang J, Bai FL, Dou YG (2013) Heavy metal in surface sediments of the Liaodong Bay, Bohai Sea: distribution, contamination and sources. Environ Monit Assess 185:5071–5083CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Huang P, Li TG, Li AC, Yu XK, Hu NJ (2014) Distribution, enrichment and sources of heavy metals in surface sediments of the North Yellow Sea. Cont Shelf Res 73:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hung T-C, Meng P-J, Han B-C, Chuang A, Huang C-C (2001) Trace metals in different species of mollusca, water and sediments from Taiwan coastal area. Chemosphere 44:833–841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jan S, Wang J, Chern CS, Chao SY (2002) Seasonal variation of the circulation in the Taiwan Strait. J Mar Syst 35:249–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jan S, Sheu DD, Kuo H-M (2006) Water mass and throughflow transport variability in the Taiwan Strait. J Geophys Res 112:C12012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Karbassi AR, Shankar R (2005) Geochemistry of two sediment cores from the west coast of India. Int J Environ Sci Technol 1:307–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Li XY, Liu LJ, Wang YG, Luo GP, Chen X, Yang XL, Gao B, He XY (2012) Integrated assessment of heavy metal contamination in sediments from a coastal industrial basin, NE China. PLoS ONE 7:e39690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Li GG, Hu BQ, Bi JQ, Leng QN, Xiao CQ, Yang ZC (2013) Heavy metals distribution and contamination in surface sediments of the coastal Shandong Peninsula (Yellow Sea). Mar Pollut Bull 76(1–2):420–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lin C, Liu Y, Li WQ, Sun XW, Ji WD (2014) Speciation, distribution, and potential ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in Xiamen Bay surface sediment. Acta Oceanol Sin 33(4):13–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Liu JP, Liu CS, Xu KH, Milliman JD, Chiu JK, Kao SJ, Lin SW (2008a) Flux and fate of small mountainous rivers derived sediments into the Taiwan Strait. Mar Geol 256:65–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Liu ZF, Tuo S, Colin C, Liu JT, Huang C-Y, Selvaraj K, Chen CTA, Zhao Y, Siringan FP, Boulay S, Chen Z (2008b) Detrital fine-grained sediment contribution from Taiwan to the northern South China Sea and its relation to regional ocean circulation. Mar Geol 255:149–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Liu JP, Xue Z, Ross K, Wang HJ, Yang ZS, Li AC, Gao S (2009) Fate of sediments delivered to the sea by Asian large rivers: long-distance transport and formation of remote alongshore clinothems. Sediment Rec 7(4):4–9Google Scholar
  35. Long ER, MacDonald DD, Severn CG, Hong CB (2000) Classifying the probabilities of acute toxicity in marine sediments with empirically-derived sediment quality guidelines. Environ Toxicol Chem 19:2598–2601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. MacDonald DD, Scott Carr R, Calder FD, Long ER, Ingersoll CG (1996) Development and evaluation of sediment quality guidelines for Florida coastal waters. Ecotoxicology 5:253–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Müller G (1969) Index of geoaccumulation in sediments of the Rhine River. GeoJournal 2:108–118Google Scholar
  38. Naser HA (2013) Assessment and management of heavy metal pollution in the marine environment of the Arabian Gulf: a review. Mar Pollut Bull 72:6–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pan K, Wang WX (2012) Trace metal contamination in estuarine and coastal environments in China. Sci Total Environ 42:3–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Perin G, Craboledda L, Lucchese L, Cirillo R, Dotta L, Zanette ML, Orio AA (1985) Heavy metal speciation in the sediments of Northern Adriatic Sea: a new approach for environmental toxicity determination. In: Lekkas TD (ed) Heavy metal in the environment, vol 2. CEP Consultant, Edinburgh, pp 454–456Google Scholar
  41. Qiu Y, Li L, Chen CTA, Guo XG, Jing CS (2011) Currents in the Taiwan Strait as observed by surface drifters. J Oceanogr 67:395–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Quevauviller P (1998) Operationally defined extraction procedures for soil and sediment analysis I. Standardization. Trends Anal Chem 17(5):289–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rauret G, López-Sánche JF, Sahuquillo A, Rubio R, Davidson C, Ure A, Quevauviller PH (1999) Improvement of the BCR three step sequential extraction procedure prior to the certification of new sediment and soil reference materials. J Environ Monit 1:57–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sahuquillo A, Rigol A, Rauret G (2003) Overview of the use of leaching/extraction tests for risk assessment of trace metals in contaminated soils and sediments. Trends Anal Chem 22(3):152–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Selvaraj K, Parthiban G, Chen CTA, Lou JY (2010) Anthropogenic effects on sediment quality offshore southwestern Taiwan: assessing the sediment core geochemical record. Cont Shelf Res 30:1200–1210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Shahidul Islam M, Tanaka M (2004) Impacts of pollution on coastal and marine ecosystems including coastal and marine fisheries and approach for management: a review and synthesis. Mar Pollut Bull 48:624–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sundaray SK, Nayak BB, Lin S, Bhatta D (2011) Geochemical speciation and risk assessment of heavy metals in the river estuarine sediments—a case study: Mahanadi basin, India. J Hazard Mater 186:1837–1846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Syvitski JPM, Peckham SD, Hilberman R, Mulder T (2003) Predicting the terrestrial flux of sediment to the global ocean: a planetary perspective. Sediment Geol 162:5–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Syvitski JPM, Vorosmarty CJ, Kettner AJ, Green P (2005) Impact of humans on the flux of terrestrial sediment to the global coastal ocean. Science 308:376–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tack FM, Verloo MG (1995) Chemical speciation and fractionation in soil and sediment heavy metal analysis: a review. Int J Environ Anal Chem 59:225–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tseng RS, Shen YT (2003) Lagrangian observations of surface flow patterns in the vicinity of Taiwan. Deep-Sea Res II 50:1107–1115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Xu YH, Sun QQ, Yi L, Yin XJ, Wang AJ, Li YH, Chen J (2014) The source of natural and anthropogenic heavy metals in the sediments of the Minjiang River Estuary (SE China): implications for historical pollution. Sci Total Environ 493:729–736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Yu R, Yuan X, Zhao Y, Hu G, Tu X (2008) Heavy metal pollution in intertidal sediments from Quanzhou Bay, China. J Environ Sci 20(6):664–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Yu Y, Song JM, Li XG, Yuan HM, Li N (2013) Fractionation, sources and budgets of potential harmful elements in surface sediments of the East China Sea. Mar Pollut Bull 68:157–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Yuan HM, Song JM, Li XG, Li N, Duan LQ (2012) Distribution and contamination of heavy metals in surface sediments of the South Yellow Sea. Mar Pollut Bull 64(10):2151–2159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zhang WG, Feng H, Chang JN, Qu JG, Xie HX, Yu LZ (2009) Heavy metal contamination in surface sediments of Yangtze River intertidal zone: an assessment from different indexes. Environ Pollut 157:1533–1543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Zhao YY, Yan MC, Jiang RH (1995) Abundance of chemical elements in continental shelf sediment of China. Geo-Mar Lett 15:71–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Zhuang W, Gao XL (2014a) Assessment of heavy metal impact on sediment quality of the Xiaoqinghe estuary in the coastal Laizhou Bay, Bohai Sea: inconsistency between two commonly used criteria. Mar Pollut Bull 83:352–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Zhuang W, Gao XL (2014b) Integrated assessment of heavy metal pollution in the surface sediments of the Laizhou Bay and the coastal waters of the Zhangzi Island, China: comparison among typical marine sediment quality indices. PLoS ONE 9(4):e94145. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094145 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xuelu Gao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Fengxia Zhou
    • 2
  • Hon-Kit Lui
    • 1
  • Jiann-Yuh Lou
    • 3
  • Chen-Tung Arthur Chen
    • 1
  • Wen Zhuang
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of OceanographyNational Sun Yat-sen UniversityKaohsiungTaiwan
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone ResearchChinese Academy of SciencesYantaiChina
  3. 3.Department of Marine ScienceNaval AcademyTsoyingTaiwan
  4. 4.College of City and Architecture EngineeringZaozhuang UniversityZaozhuangChina

Personalised recommendations