Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 22, Issue 23, pp 18654–18668 | Cite as

Characteristics of particle coagulation in an underground parking lot

  • Yu Zhao
  • Shinsuke Kato
  • Jianing ZhaoEmail author
Research Article


Particles in vehicle exhaust plumes in underground parking lots have adverse health effects due to the enclosed environment in which they are released and the temperature difference between the tailpipe and ambient environment; at the same time, particle coagulation might be obvious near the tailpipe in an underground parking lot. In the present study, airflow and temperature fields were calculated using the Realizable k-ε model, and the Eulerian particle transport model was selected in the numerical simulation of particle concentration dispersion. Polydisperse thermal coagulation due to Brownian collisions was employed to calculate the particle coagulation. The results show that particle coagulation rate and half-time were significant within 1 m from the tailpipe. The variations in the particle coagulation rate and half-time were similar, but their directions were opposite. Air exhaust time was nearly four times longer than averaged half-time and 40 times longer than minimum half-time. The peak particle diameter increased approximately 1.43 times due to coagulation. A double particle concentration at the tailpipe caused the fourfold rise in the particle coagulation rate in the distance ranging less than 1 m from the tailpipe. An increase in exhaust velocity at the tailpipe could shorten the obvious range of particle coagulation along the centerline of the tailpipe from 1 to 0.8 m in the study.


Coagulation Half-time Particle size distribution Ultrafine particle Underground parking lot Vehicle exhaust 



The authors wish to acknowledge Kato Lab and Ooka Lab, Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, for providing advanced calculators to carry out the numerical simulation. The authors also wish to thank Yan Wang and Kai Zhu at the School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology in China for their assistance with the boundary and initial conditions measurement in the simulation.

Supplementary material

11356_2015_5590_MOESM1_ESM.docx (34 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 34 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Municipal & Environmental EngineeringHarbin Institute of TechnologyHarbinChina
  2. 2.Kato Lab and Ooka Lab, Institute of Industrial ScienceThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan

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