Sorption and desorption of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) was evaluated in biochars derived from sugarcane bagasse (SB), eucalyptus forest residues (CE), castor meal (CM), green coconut pericarp (PC), and water hyacinth (WH) as candidate materials for the treatment of contaminated waters and soils. Solid–liquid distribution coefficients depended strongly on the initial metal concentration, with Kd,max values mostly within the range 103–104 L kg−1. For all biochars, up to 95 % removal of all the target metals from water was achieved. The WH biochar showed the highest Kd,max values for all the metals, especially Cd and Zn, followed by CE (for Cd and Pb) and PC (for Cd, Pb, and Zn). Sorption data were fitted satisfactorily with Freundlich and linear models (in the latter case, for the low concentration range). The sorption appeared to be controlled by cationic exchange, together with specific surface complexation at low metal concentrations. The low desorption yields, generally less than 5 %, confirmed that the sorption process was largely irreversible and that the biochars could potentially be used in decontamination applications.
Biochar Waste biomass Slow pyrolysis Metal removal Sorption Desorption
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This research was supported by the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (Project CTM2011-27211 and CTM2014-55191) and the Generalitat de Catalunya (AGAUR 2014SGR1277). The authors are indebted to CNPq and CAPES for a doctorate scholarship (MED) and research scholarships (JBA, ASM, AWJ, and EHN).
The authors wish to thank Melhoramentos S.A. for supplying the sugar cane bagasse and Granfor for supplying the eucalyptus forest residues.
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