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Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 23, Issue 2, pp 1916–1928 | Cite as

Investigating the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis: the role of tourism and ecological footprint

  • Ilhan OzturkEmail author
  • Usama Al-Mulali
  • Behnaz Saboori
Research Article

Abstract

The main objective of this study is to examine the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis by utilizing the ecological footprint as an environment indicator and GDP from tourism as the economic indicator. To achieve this goal, an environmental degradation model is established during the period of 1988–2008 for 144 countries. The results from the time series generalized method of moments (GMM) and the system panel GMM revealed that the number of countries that have a negative relationship between the ecological footprint and its determinants (GDP growth from tourism, energy consumption, trade openness, and urbanization) is more existent in the upper middle- and high-income countries. Moreover, the EKC hypothesis is more present in the upper middle- and high-income countries than the other income countries. From the outcome of this research, a number of policy recommendations were provided for the investigated countries.

Keywords

Ecological footprint GDP from tourism Environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis The generalized method of moments 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical statement

The manuscript has not been previously published, is not currently submitted for review to any other journal, and will not be submitted elsewhere before a decision is made by this journal.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Economics and Administrative SciencesCag UniversityMersinTurkey
  2. 2.Faculty of BusinessMultimedia UniversityMelakaMalaysia
  3. 3.Centre of Real Estate Studies, Department of Real Estate, Faculty of Geoinformation & Real EstateUniversiti Teknologi MalaysiaJohor BahruMalaysia

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