Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp 2537–2548 | Cite as

The washout effect during laundry on benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and their derivatives in clothing textiles

  • Giovanna Luongo
  • Rozanna Avagyan
  • Ren Hongyu
  • Conny Östman
Research Article


In two previous papers, the authors have shown that benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and several of their derivatives are widespread in clothing textile articles. A number of these compounds exhibit allergenic and irritating properties and, due to their octanol–water partition coefficient, are prone to be absorbed by the skin. Moreover, they are slightly soluble in water, which could make washing of clothes a route of emission into the environment. In the present study, the washout effect of benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and some of their derivatives has been investigated. Twenty-seven textile samples were analyzed before, as well as after five and ten times of washing. The most abundant analyte was found to be benzothiazole, which was detected in 85 % of the samples with an average concentration of 0.53 μg/g (median 0.44 μg/g), followed by quinoline, detected in 81 % of the samples with an average concentration of 2.42 μg/g (median 0.21 μg/g). The average decrease in concentration for benzothiazoles was 50 % after ten times washing, while it was around 20 % for quinolines. The average emission to household wastewater of benzothiazoles and quinolines during one washing (5 kg of clothes made from polyester materials) was calculated to 0.5 and 0.24 g, respectively. These results strongly indicate that laundering of clothing textiles can be an important source of release of these compounds to household wastewater and in the end to aquatic environments. It also demonstrates a potential source of human exposure to these chemicals since considerable amounts of the compounds remain in the clothes even after ten times of washing.


Benzothiazoles Benzotriazoles Quinolines Clothing Textiles Garments 



This study has been funded by Stockholm University.

Supplementary material

11356_2015_5405_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.2 mb)
ESM 1 Three tables with detailed information about the analytes, MS/MS parameters and detailed information on method validation, 13 figures with determined concentrations of each analyte in the clothing textile samples and the concentration decrease after five and ten washing steps. (DOCX 1239 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Arrhenius LaboratoryStockholm UniversityStockholmSweden

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