Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 23, Issue 2, pp 1408–1413 | Cite as

Degradability of chlorophenols using ferrate(VI) in contaminated groundwater

  • M. Homolková
  • P. Hrabák
  • M. Kolář
  • M. Černík
Research Article


The production and use of chlorophenolic compounds in industry has led to the introduction of many xenobiotics, among them chlorophenols (CPs), into the environment. Five CPs are listed in the priority pollutant list of the U.S. EPA, with pentachlorophenol (PCP) even being proposed for listing under the Stockholm Convention as a persistent organic pollutant (POP). A green procedure for degrading such pollutants is greatly needed. The use of ferrate could be such a process. This paper studies the degradation of CPs (with an emphasis on PCP) in the presence of ferrate both in a spiked demineralized water system as well as in real contaminated groundwater. Results proved that ferrate was able to completely remove PCP from both water systems. Investigation of the effect of ferrate purity showed that even less pure and thus much cheaper ferrate was applicable. However, with decreasing ferrate purity, the degradability of CPs may be lower.


Degradability Ferrate Fe(VI) Pentachlorophenol Chlorophenols Complex contaminated water 



The work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic through the SGS project 21066/115, the Competence Centre of the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic (TE01020218), the project OPR&DI of the Centre for Nanomaterials, Advanced Technologies and Innovation (CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0005) and the National Programme for Sustainability I (LO1201 and LO1305) of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic. We thank Petr Novák from Palacký University in Olomouc (UPOL) for the Mössbauer measurements and to LAC, Ltd. for providing the ferrates.


  1. Benoitguyod J, Bruckner C, Benoitguyod M (1994) Degradation of chlorophenols by ozone and light. Fresenius Environ Bull 3:331–338Google Scholar
  2. Bollag JM, Chu H-L, Rao MA, Gianfreda L (2003) Enzymatic oxidative transformation of chlorophenol mixtures. J Environ Qual 32:63–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Exon JH (1984) A review of chlorinated phenols. Vet Hum Toxicol 26:508–520Google Scholar
  4. Filip J, Yngard RA, Siskova K, Marusak Z, Ettler V, Sajdl P (2011) Mechanisms and efficiency of the simultaneous removal of metals and cyanides by using ferrate(VI): crucial roles of nanocrystalline iron(III) oxyhydroxides and metal carbonates. Chem Eur J 17:10097–10105. doi: 10.1002/chem.201100711
  5. Gombos E, Felföldi T, Barkács K, Vértes C, Vajna B, Záray G (2012) Ferrate treatment for inactivation of bacterial community in municipal secondary effluent. Bioresour Technol 107:116–121. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2011.12.053
  6. Goodwill JE, Jiang Y, Reckhow DA, Gikonyo J, Tobiason JE (2015) Characterization of particles from ferrate preoxidation. Environ Sci Technol 49:4955–4962. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b00225
  7. Graham N, Jianga C-C, Lia X-Z, Jiangc J-Q, Mad J (2004) The influence of pH on the degradation of phenol and chlorophenols by potassium ferrate. Chemosphere 56:949–956. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.04.060
  8. Han Q, Wang H, Dong W, Liu T, Yin Y (2014) Suppression of bromate formation in ozonation process by using ferrate(VI): batch study. Chem Eng J 236:110–120. doi: 10.1016/j.cej.2013.09.072
  9. Heller-Grossman L, Manka J, Limoni-Relis B, Rebhun M (1993) Formation and distribution of haloacetic acids, THM and tox in chlorination of bromide-rich lake water. Water Res 27:1323–1331. doi: 10.1016/0043-1354(93)90219-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hou M-F, Tang X-Y, Zhang W-D, Liao L, Wan H-F (2011) Degradation of pentachlorophenol by potato polyphenol oxidase. J Agric Food Chem 59:11456–11460. doi: 10.1021/jf202236c
  11. Jeannot C, Malaman B, Gerardin R, Oulladiaf B (2002) Synthesis, crystal, and magnetic structures of the sodium ferrate (IV) Na4FeO4 studied by neutron diffraction and Mossbauer techniques. J Solid State Chem 165:266–277. doi: 10.1006/jssc.2002.9520 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jiang J-Q (2014) Advances in the development and application of ferrate(VI) for water and wastewater treatment. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 89:165–177. doi: 10.1002/jctb.4214 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jiang J-Q, Lloyd B (2002) Progress in the development and use of ferrate(VI) salt as an oxidant and coagulant for water and wastewater treatment. Water Res 36:1397–1408. doi: 10.1016/S0043-1354(01)00358-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jiang JQ, Yin Q, Pearce P, Zhou J (2005) A survey of endocrine disrupting chemicals in sewage and a preliminary treatment trial. Water Sci Technol 52:1–7Google Scholar
  15. Jiang Y, Goodwill JE, Tobiason JE, Reckhow DA (2015) Effect of different solutes, natural organic matter, and particulate Fe(III) on ferrate(VI) decomposition in aqueous solutions. Environ Sci Technol. doi:  10.1021/es505516w.
  16. Kokarovt, I.G., Belyaev, I.N., Semenyak L.V. (1972) Oxygen compounds of iron (VI, V, IV). Russ Chem Rev 41(11):929–937Google Scholar
  17. Lee Y, Yoon J, Von Gunten U (2005) Kinetics of the oxidation of phenols and phenolic endocrine disruptors during water treatment with ferrate (Fe(VI)). Environ Sci Technol 39:8978–8984. doi: 10.1021/es051198w CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Li C, Li XZ, Graham N (2005) A study of the preparation and reactivity of potassium ferrate. Chemosphere 61:537–543. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.02.027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Licht S, Naschitz V, Halperin L, Halperin N, Lin L, Chen J, Ghosh S, Liu B (2001) Analysis of ferrate(VI) compounds and super-iron Fe(VI) battery cathodes: FTIR, ICP, titrimetric, XRD, UV/VIS, and electrochemical characterization. J Power Sources 101:167–176. doi: 10.1016/S0378-7753(01)00786-8
  20. Olaniran AO, Igbinosa EO (2011) Chlorophenols and other related derivatives of environmental concern: properties, distribution and microbial degradation processes. Chemosphere 83:1297–1306. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.04.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Oturan MA, Oturan N, Lahitte C, Trevin S (2001) Production of hydroxyl radicals by electrochemically assisted Fenton’s reagent: application to the mineralization of an organic micropollutant, pentachlorophenol. J Electroanal Chem 507:96–102. doi: 10.1016/S0022-0728(01)00369-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Richardson SD (2003) Disinfection by-products and other emerging contaminants in drinking water. TrAC Trends Anal Chem 22:666–684. doi: 10.1016/S0165-9936(03)01003-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sharma VK (2002) Potassium ferrate(VI): an environmentally friendly oxidant. Adv Environ Res 6:143–156. doi: 10.1016/S1093-0191(01)00119-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sharma VK (2011) Oxidation of inorganic contaminants by ferrates (VI, V, and IV)—kinetics and mechanisms: a review. J Environ Manag 92:1051–1073. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2010.11.026 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sharma VK (2013) Ferrate(VI) and ferrate(V) oxidation of organic compounds: kinetics and mechanism. Coord Chem Rev 257:495–510. doi: 10.1016/j.ccr.2012.04.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Skaggs BK, Reimers RS, Englande AJ, Srisawat P, Austin GC (2008) Evaluation of the green oxidant ferrate for wastewater reuse for wetland restoration. Proc Water Environ Federation 23:442–464. doi: 10.2175/193864708790894638
  27. Tiwari D, Lee S-M (2011) Ferrate(VI) in the treatment of wastewaters: a new generation green chemical. In: Garca Einschlag FS (ed) Waste water - treatment and reutilization. Under CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 license. © The Author(s)Google Scholar
  28. Wahl K, Klemm W, Wehrmeyer G (1956) Uber Einige Oxokomplexe Von Ubergangselementen. Z Anorg Allg Chem 285:322–336. doi: 10.1002/zaac.19562850325 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Zhou W-J, Boyd JM, Qin F, Hrudey SE, Li X-F (2009) Formation of N-Nitrosodiphenylamine and two new N-containing disinfection byproducts from chloramination of water containing diphenylamine. Environ Sci Technol 43:8443–8448. doi: 10.1021/es901935v

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Homolková
    • 1
  • P. Hrabák
    • 1
  • M. Kolář
    • 2
  • M. Černík
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Mechatronics, Informatics and Interdisciplinary Studies & Institute for Nanomaterials, Advanced Technologies and InnovationsTechnical University of LiberecLiberecCzech Republic
  2. 2.Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and MaterialsPalacký University in OlomoucOlomoucCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations