Pb pollution in soils from a trap shooting range and the phytoremediation ability of Agrostis capillaris L.
- 460 Downloads
Pb pollution caused by shooting sport activities is a serious environmental problem that has increased considerably in recent decades. The aims of this study were firstly to analyze Pb pollution in soils from a trap shooting range abandoned in 1999, secondly to study the effectiveness of different extractants [CaCl2, DTPA, NH4OAc, low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA), and bidistilled water (BDW)] in order to determine Pb bioavailability in these soils, and finally to evaluate the phytoremediation ability of spontaneous vegetation (Agrostis capillaris L.). To this end, 13 soils from an old trap shooting range (Galicia, NW Spain) were studied. It was found that Pb levels in the soils were higher than 100 mg kg−1, exceeding the generic reference levels, and three of these samples even exceeded the USEPA threshold level (400 mg kg−1). In general, the reagent that best represents Pb bioavailability and has the greatest extraction efficiency was CaCl2, followed by DTPA, NH4OAc, LMWOA, and BDW. A. capillaris Pb contents ranged between 9.82 and 1107.42 mg kg−1 (root) and between 6.43 and 135.23 mg kg−1 (shoot). Pb accumulation in roots, as well as the presence of secondary mineral phases of metallic Pb in the adjacent soil, showed the phytostabilization properties of A. capillaris.
KeywordsAgrostis capillaris Lead Pellets Phytostabilization Single extraction Shooting range
This research was supported by MICIN-CGL2013-45494-R (Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad—Spain). F.A. Vega would like to thank the Ministry of Science and Innovation, and the University of Vigo for the Ramón y Cajal grant. A. Rodríguez Seijo was supported by a predoctoral contract funded by the Universidade de Vigo (P.P. 00VI 131H 64102). We are grateful to Club de Tiro Olímpico Cabe for their help with the sample collection.
Compliance with ethical standards
We confirm that the manuscript has been read and approved by all named authors and that there are no other persons who satisfied the criteria for authorship but are not listed. This research does not involve human participants and/or animals.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
- Ahmad M, Lee SS, Moon DH, Yang JE, Ok YS (2012) A review of environmental contamination and remediation strategies for heavy metals at shooting range soils. In: Malik A, Grohmann E (Eds.) Environmental protection strategies for sustainable development, strategies for sustainability. New York, Springer, pp. 437–451. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-1591-2_14
- Anjos C, Magalhães MC, Abreu MM (2012) Metal (Al, Mn, Pb and Zn) soils extractable reagents for available fraction assessment: comparison using plants, and dry and moist soils from the Braçal abandoned lead mine area, Portugal. J Geochem Explor 113:45–55. doi: 10.1016/j.gexplo.2011.07.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Baker AJM, Brooks RR (1989) Terrestrial higher plants which hyperaccumulate metallic elements—a review of their distribution, ecology and phytochemistry. Biorecovery 1:81–126Google Scholar
- Bremner JM, Mulvaney CS (1982) Nitrogen-total. In: Page AL, Miller RH, Keeney RS (eds) Method of soil analysis: part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. Agronomy monographs no. 9, 2nd edn. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, pp 595–624Google Scholar
- Expert Panel on Soil (2003) Manual on methods and criteria for harmonized sampling, assessment monitoring and analysis of the effects of air pollution on forests. Part IIIa, Sampling and analysis of soil. Int. co-operative programme on assessment and monitoring of air pollution effects on forests. Institute for Forestry and Game Management, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
- Guitart R, Mateo R (2006) El empleo de Plomo en deportes como causa de intoxicación y de contaminación. Apuntes de Ciencia y Tecnología 21:36–42 (in Spanish) Google Scholar
- Hartikainen H, Kerko E (2009) Lead in various chemical pools in soil depth profiles on two shooting ranges of different age. Boreal Environ Res 14 (suppl A.):61-69. doi: http://www.borenv.net/BER/pdfs/ber14/ber14A-061.pdf
- Kabata-Pendias A (2010) Trace elements in soils and plants 4th Ed. CRC Press. http://www.crcnetbase.com/isbn/9781420093704
- Lobb AJ (2006) Potential for PAH contamination from clay target debris at shooting sites: review of literature on occurrence of site contamination from clay targets. Report No. U06/81. 18 June 2006. Environment Canterbury. New Zealand. http://ecan.govt.nz/publications/Reports/PotentialForPAHcontamination_U0681.pdf Accessed 4 February 2015
- Macías F, Calvo de Anta R (2009) Niveles Genéricos de Referencia de Metales Pesados y Otros Elementos Traza en Suelos de Galicia. Consellería de Medio Ambiente e Desenvolvemento Sostible. Xunta de Galicia, Santiago de Compostela, Spain (in Spanish) http://solos.medioambiente.xunta.es/solos/documents/librongr.pdf Accessed 22 February 2015
- McCutcheon SC, Schnoor JL (2003) Phytoremediation: transformation and control of contaminants. New Jersey, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley-Interscience, Inc.Google Scholar
- Mench M, Schwitzguébel JP, Schroeder P, Bert V, Gawronski S et al (2009) Assessment of successful experiments and limitations of phytotechnologies: contaminant uptake, detoxification and sequestration, and consequences for food safety. Environ Sci Pollut Res 16:876–890. doi: 10.1007/s11356-009-0252-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Olsen SR, Sommers LE (1982) Phosphorus. In: Page AL (ed) Methods of soil analysis, part 2. Agron. Mongr.9, 2nd edn. ASA and SSSA, Madison, pp 403–430Google Scholar
- SIGPAC (2014) Sistema de Información Geográfica de Parcelas Agrícolas. Ministerio de Agricultura Pesca y Alimentación. http://sigpac.magrama.es/fega/visor/ Accessed 14 January 2015
- Thomas VG, Anderson DA (2014) Banning the use of lead shot—options for the International Olympic Committee. Environ Policy Law 43:300–306Google Scholar
- USEPA (2001) Lead; identification of dangerous levels of lead; final rule. 40 CFR part 745. Washington, DC: United States Environmental Protection Agency. http://epa.gov/superfund/lead/products/rule.pdf Accessed 21 February 2015