Pb pollution in soils from a trap shooting range and the phytoremediation ability of Agrostis capillaris L.
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Pb pollution caused by shooting sport activities is a serious environmental problem that has increased considerably in recent decades. The aims of this study were firstly to analyze Pb pollution in soils from a trap shooting range abandoned in 1999, secondly to study the effectiveness of different extractants [CaCl2, DTPA, NH4OAc, low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA), and bidistilled water (BDW)] in order to determine Pb bioavailability in these soils, and finally to evaluate the phytoremediation ability of spontaneous vegetation (Agrostis capillaris L.). To this end, 13 soils from an old trap shooting range (Galicia, NW Spain) were studied. It was found that Pb levels in the soils were higher than 100 mg kg−1, exceeding the generic reference levels, and three of these samples even exceeded the USEPA threshold level (400 mg kg−1). In general, the reagent that best represents Pb bioavailability and has the greatest extraction efficiency was CaCl2, followed by DTPA, NH4OAc, LMWOA, and BDW. A. capillaris Pb contents ranged between 9.82 and 1107.42 mg kg−1 (root) and between 6.43 and 135.23 mg kg−1 (shoot). Pb accumulation in roots, as well as the presence of secondary mineral phases of metallic Pb in the adjacent soil, showed the phytostabilization properties of A. capillaris.
KeywordsAgrostis capillaris Lead Pellets Phytostabilization Single extraction Shooting range
This research was supported by MICIN-CGL2013-45494-R (Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad—Spain). F.A. Vega would like to thank the Ministry of Science and Innovation, and the University of Vigo for the Ramón y Cajal grant. A. Rodríguez Seijo was supported by a predoctoral contract funded by the Universidade de Vigo (P.P. 00VI 131H 64102). We are grateful to Club de Tiro Olímpico Cabe for their help with the sample collection.
Compliance with ethical standards
We confirm that the manuscript has been read and approved by all named authors and that there are no other persons who satisfied the criteria for authorship but are not listed. This research does not involve human participants and/or animals.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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