Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 878–886 | Cite as

Evaluation of calcium and lead interaction, in addition to their impact on thyroid functions in hyper and hypothyroid patients

  • Nusrat Shahab Memon
  • Tasneem Gul Kazi
  • Hassan Imran AfridiEmail author
  • Jameel Ahmed Baig
  • Sadaf Sadia Arain
  • Oan Muhammad Sahito
  • Shahnawaz Baloch
  • Muhammad Waris
Research Article


There is compelling evidence in support of interaction between calcium (Ca) and lead (Pb) in thyroid disorders. The aim of present study was to compare the level of Ca and Pb with thyroid hormones such as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and free thyroxin (FT4) in serum samples of hyperthyroid (HPRT) and hypothyroid (HPOT) patients of both genders. For comparative purpose, age-matched (25–50 years) subjects having no thyroid disorders were selected as referents/controls. The serum samples were acid-digested prior to analysis by atomic absorption spectrometry. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked by certified reference materials. The resulted data indicates that the mean values of Ca in serum samples of HPRT patients were significantly higher than those of referent subjects (p < 0.01), while reverse pattern was observed in the case of HPOT patients. The level of Pb was higher in the serum samples of both types of thyroid patients, but difference was significant in case of HPOT patients as compare to referent subjects (p < 0.01). A negative correlation was observed between serum Ca levels and TSH of HPRT patients (−r = 0.37–0.39, p < 0.01), while FT3 and FT4 have positive correlation (r = 0.49–0.52 and r = 0.46–0.47), p values <0.01. The Pb in serum had positive correlation with TSH (r = 0.48–0.51, p < 0.005), while negative correlation was observed for FT3 and FT4 (−r = 0.55–0.56, 0.5–0.54, p < 0.05) in HPRT patients. On the other hand, a reverse pattern was observed, for correlation of Ca and Pb with thyroid functions in HPOT patients.


Calcium Lead Hyperthyroid Hypothyroid Serum Atomic absorption spectrometer 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nusrat Shahab Memon
    • 1
  • Tasneem Gul Kazi
    • 1
  • Hassan Imran Afridi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jameel Ahmed Baig
    • 1
  • Sadaf Sadia Arain
    • 1
  • Oan Muhammad Sahito
    • 1
  • Shahnawaz Baloch
    • 1
  • Muhammad Waris
    • 1
  1. 1.National Centre of Excellence in Analytical ChemistryUniversity of SindhJamshoroPakistan

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