Cadmium exposure and the risk of breast cancer in Chaoshan population of southeast China
- 441 Downloads
Recently, there is increasing evidence indicating a link between cadmium exposure and human breast cancer. This study was aimed to explore the relationship between blood cadmium burden and the risk of breast cancer in Chaoshan women with no occupational exposure. Blood cadmium levels (BCLs) were determined in whole blood of 186 breast cancer cases and 139 controls. Basic clinical data and information of age, occupation, blood types, family cancer history, and disease history, as well as other demographic characteristics were collected from medical records. BCLs were detected by graphite-furnace atomizer absorption spectrophotometer (GFAAS). BCLs and proportions of BCLs over 3 μg/L between cases and controls were compared. The relationships between BCLs and breast cancer were explored by comparing BCL differences between/among different characteristics of investigated factors. In addition, BCLs within cases were also compared in relation to the disease clinical stages, tumor–node–metastasis (TNM) stages, and estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and Cerb-B2 expressions. The breast cancer patients had a higher median concentration of blood cadmium (2.28, interquartile range 1.57–3.15 μg/L) than the controls (1.77, 1.34–2.57 μg/L; P = 0.001). The proportion of BCLs over 3 μg/L was 2.35 times higher in the breast cancer cases than that of the controls after adjusting for age. Cadmium tends to accumulate in the human body with age and body mass index (BMI) but not associates with type of job, family history, disease history, and other investigated characters. With the increase of clinical stages and T and M stages, the BCLs in the breast cancer cases also increased. BCLs were positively associated with Cerb-B2 expression (r = 0.152, P = 0.038) but not significantly associated with ER and PR expressions. The data obtained show that cadmium concentration is significantly higher in blood of breast cancer patients in comparison to healthy controls. Cadmium seems to be a risk factor of breast cancer, and high cadmium exposure was observed in advanced stages of this disease, which indicates that it may promote the development of breast cancer.
KeywordsBlood cadmium levels Breast cancer ER PR Cerb-B2
We are grateful to all the volunteers for participating in the present study. This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.: 81470152), Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province, China (No.: 2014A020212287), and Shantou University Medical College Clinical Research Enhancement Initiative.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.
- Akesson A, Barregard L, Bergdahl IA, Nordberg GF, Nordberg M, Skerfving S (2014) Non-renal effects and the risk assessment of environmental cadmium exposure. Environ Health Perspect 122:431–438Google Scholar
- Boffetta P, Fontana L, Stewart P, Zaridze D, Szeszenia-Dabrowska N, Janout V, Bencko V, Foretova L, Jinga V, Matveev V, Kollarova H, Ferro G, Chow WH, Rothman N, van Bemmel D, Karami S, Brennan P, Moore LE (2011) Occupational exposure to arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel, and renal cell carcinoma: a case–control study from Central and Eastern Europe. Occup Environ Med 68:723–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- CDC (2005) Third national report on human exposure to environmental chemicals. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
- Cen YL, Tang LY, Lin Y, Su FX, Wu BH, Ren ZF (2013) Association between urinary cadmium and clinicopathological characteristics of breast cancer. Chin J Oncol 35:632–5Google Scholar
- Gallagher CM, Chen JJ, Kovach JS (2010) Environmental cadmium and breast cancer risk. Aging 2:804–14Google Scholar
- Garcia-Morales P, Saceda M, Kenney N, Kim N, Salomon DS, Gottardis MM, Solomon HB, Sholler PF, Jordan VC, Martin MB (1994) Effect of cadmium on estrogen receptor levels and estrogen-induced responses in human breast cancer cells. J Biol Chem 269:16896–901Google Scholar
- IARC (1993) Beryllium, cadmium, mercury and exposures in the glass manufacturing industry. International Agency for Research on Cancer, LyonGoogle Scholar
- Jarup L, Berglund M, Elinder CG, Nordberg G, Vahter M (1998) Health effects of cadmium exposure—a review of the literature and a risk estimate. Scand J Work Environ Health 24(Suppl 1):1–51Google Scholar
- Kotsopoulos J, Sukiennicki G, Muszynska M, Gackowski D, Kaklewski K, Durda K, Jaworska K, Huzarski T, Gronwald J, Byrski T, Ashuryk O, Debniak T, Toloczko-Grabarek A, Stawicka M, Godlewski D, Olinski R, Jakubowska A, Narod SA, Lubinski J (2012) Plasma micronutrients, trace elements, and breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers: an exploratory study. Cancer Causes Control 23:1065–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ley-Quinonez C, Zavala-Norzagaray AA, Espinosa-Carreon TL, Peckham H, Marquez-Herrera C, Campos-Villegas L, Aguirre AA (2011) Baseline heavy metals and metalloid values in blood of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) from Baja California Sur, Mexico. Mar Pollut Bull 62:1979–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Parsa N (2012) Environmental factors inducing human cancers. Iran J Public Health 41:1–9Google Scholar
- Stoica A, Katzenellenbogen BS, Martin MB (2000) Activation of estrogen receptor-alpha by the heavy metal cadmium. Mol Endocrinol 14:545–53Google Scholar
- Strumylaite L, Bogusevicius A, Ryselis S, Pranys D, Poskiene L, Kregzdyte R, Abdrachmanovas O, Asadauskaite R (2008) Association between cadmium and breast cancer. Medicina 44:415–20Google Scholar
- WHO (2015) Breast cancer: prevention and control. http://www.who.int/cancer/detection/breastcancer/en/