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Utilization of air pollution control residues for the stabilization/solidification of trace element contaminated soil

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the stabilization/solidification (S/S) of trace element-contaminated soil using air pollution control residues (APCRs) prior to disposal in landfill sites. Two soil samples (with low and moderate concentrations of organic matter) were stabilized using three APCRs that originated from the incineration of municipal solid waste, bio-fuels and a mixture of coal and crushed olive kernels. Two APCR/soil mixtures were tested: 30 % APCR/70 % soil and 50 % APCR/50 % soil. A batch leaching test was used to study immobilization of As and co-occurring metals Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. Solidification was evaluated by measuring the unconfined compression strength (UCS). Leaching of As was reduced by 39–93 % in APCR/soil mixtures and decreased with increased amounts of added APCR. Immobilization of As positively correlated with the amount of Ca in the APCR and negatively with the amount of soil organic matter. According to geochemical modelling, the precipitation of calcium arsenate (Ca3(AsO4)2/4H2O) and incorporation of As in ettringite (Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O) in soil/APCR mixtures might explain the reduced leaching of As. A negative effect of the treatment was an increased leaching of Cu, Cr and dissolved organic carbon. Solidification of APCR/soil was considerably weakened by soil organic matter.

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Acknowledgments

This work was financially supported by The Swedish Research Council FORMAS and RagnSells AB. The authors are grateful to Johan Lagerlund, Vatenfall AB and Dr. Rolf Sjöblom, Tekedo AB, for their valuable comments. The authors thank Catarina Thörngren and Paul Würtzell at RagnSells AB and Thomas Forsberg and Desiree Nordmark at Luleå University of Technology for their assistance during laboratory work.

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Correspondence to I. Travar.

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Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues

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Travar, I., Kihl, A. & Kumpiene, J. Utilization of air pollution control residues for the stabilization/solidification of trace element contaminated soil. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22, 19101–19111 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-5087-1

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Keywords

  • Immobilization
  • Chromium
  • Copper
  • Calcium arsenate
  • Geochemical modelling