Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using Jasminum nervosum leaf extract and its larvicidal activity against filarial and arboviral vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)

  • 550 Accesses

  • 27 Citations


Silver and gold nanoparticles of Jasminum nervosum L. had unique optical properties such as broad absorbance band in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Characterization of the nanoparticles using UV spectrophotometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the particles were silver (AgNPs) and gold (AuNPs) ranging between 4–22 and 2–20 nm with an average particles size of 9.4 and 10 nm, respectively. AgNPs and AuNPs of J. nervosum had high larvicidal activity on the filarial and arboviral vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, than the leaf aqueous extract. Observed lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC95) against the third instar larvae were 57.40 and 144.36 μg/ml for AgNPs and 82.62 and 254.68 μg/ml for AuNPs after 24 h treatment, respectively. The lethal time to kill 50 % of C. quinquefasciatus larvae were 2.24 and 4.51 h at 150 μg/ml of AgNPs and AuNPs, respectively, while in the case of aqueous leaf extract of J. nervosum it was 9.44 h at 500 μg/ml (F 2,14 = 397.51, P < 0.0001). The principal component analysis plot presented differential clustering of the aqueous leaf extract, AgNP and AuNPs in relation to lethal dose and lethal time. It is concluded from the present findings that the biosynthesised AgNPs and AuNPs using leaf aqueous extract of J. nervosum could be an environmentally safer nanobiopesticide, and provided potential larvicidal effect on C. quinquefasciatus larvae which could be used for prevention of several dreadful diseases.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6


  1. Abbott WS (1925) A method of computing the effectiveness of insecticides. J Eco Ento 18(2):265–267

  2. Addiss DG (2013) Global elimination of lymphatic filariasis: a mass uprising of compassion. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7(8), e2264

  3. Ahmad N, Sharma S, Alam MK, Singh VN, Shamsi SF, Mehta BR, Fatma A (2010) Rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles using dried medicinal plant of basil. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 81(1):81–86

  4. Ankamwar B, Damle C, Absar A, Mural S (2005) Biosynthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using Emblica officinalis fruit extract, their phase transfer and transmetallation in an organic solution. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 10:1665–1671

  5. Asmathunisha N, Kathiresan K, Anburaj NMA (2010) Synthesis of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles by callus leaf extracts from salt marsh plant Sesuvium portulacastrum L. Coll Surf B Biointer 79:488–493

  6. Barman G, Maiti S, Laha JK (2013) Bio-fabrication of gold nanoparticles using aqueous extract of red tomato and its use as a colorimetric sensor. Nanoscale Res Lett 8:181

  7. Chang MC, Chiu LQ, Wei Z, Green PS (1996) Oleaceae. In: Wu ZY, Raven PH (eds) Flora of China, Myrsinaceae through Loganiaceae, vol 15. Science Press/Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing, pp 272–319

  8. Choi O, Deng KK, Kim NJ, Rose LJ, Surampalli RY, Hu Z (2008) The inhibitory effects of silver nanoparticles, silver ions and silver chloride colloids on microbial growth. Water Resources 42:3066–3074

  9. Editorial committee of the National Chinese Medicine Administrative bureau (2005) Chinese material medica. Shanghai Scientific and Technical Education Publishing House, Shanghai

  10. Finney DJ (1971) Probit analysis, vol 551, 3rd edn. Cambridge University Press, London, pp 68–72

  11. Gerberg EJ, Barnard DR, Ward RA (1994) Manual for mosquito rearing and experimental techniques. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 5:98

  12. Gnanadesigan M, Anand M, Ravikumar S, Maruthupandy M, Vijayakumar V, Selvam S, Dhineshkumar M, Kumaraguru AK (2011) Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by using mangrove plant extract and their potential mosquito larvicidal property. Asian Pacific J Trop Med 4(10):799–803

  13. Guo Z, Li P, Huang W, Wang J, Liu Y, Liu B, Wang Y, Wu S, Kennelly EJ, Long C (2014) Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory caffeoyl phenylpropanoid and secoiridoid glycosides from Jasminum nervosum stems, a Chinese folk medicine. Phytochemistry 106:124–133

  14. Gyapong J, Gyapong M, Yellu M, Anakwah K, Amofah G, Bockarie M, Adjei S (2010) Integration of control of neglected tropical diseases into health-care systems: challenges and opportunities. Lancet 375(9709):160–165

  15. Hammer O, Harper DAT, Ryan PD (2001) PAST: palaeontological statistical software for education and data analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica 4(1):9

  16. Huo L, Li P, Chen R, Deng CC, Lu R, Lu CS (2011a) Volatile constituents of the leaves and the stems of Jasminum nervosum Lour. Lishizheng Med Mat Med Res 22:2616–2618

  17. Huo L, Lu R, Li P, Liao Y, Chen R, Deng CH, Lu CH, Wei X, Li Y (2011b) Antioxidant activity, total phenolic, and total flavonoid of extracts from the stems of Jasminum nervosum Lour. Grasas Y Aceites 62(2):149–154

  18. Ingle A, Gade A, Pierrat S, Sonnichsen C, Rai M (2008) Mycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Fusarium acuminatum and its activity against some human pathogenic bacteria. Curr Nanosci 4:141–144

  19. Jain D, Kumar DH, Kachhwaha S, Kothari SL (2009) Synthesis of plant- mediated silver nanoparticles using papaya fruit extract and evaluation of their anti microbial activities. Dig J Nanomater Bios 4:557–563

  20. Jayaseelan C, Rahuman AA, Rajakumar G, Vishnu Kirthi A, Santhoshkumar T, Marimuthu S, Bagavan A, Kamaraj C, Zahir AA, Elango G (2011) Synthesis of pediculocidal and larvicidal silver nanoparticles by leaf extract from heartleaf moonseed plant, Tinospora cordifolia Miers. Parasitol Res 109(1):185–194

  21. Jin W, Jan GF (2006) Biological activities of iridoids. Herald of Medicine 25:530–533

  22. Jones CM, Machin C, Mohammed K, Majambere S, Ali AS, Khatib BO, Mcha J, Ranson H, Kelly-Hope LA (2012) Insecticide resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus from Zanzibar: implications for vector control programmes. Parasite Vectors 5:78

  23. Kaushal K, Sharma AK, Sarita K, Sunita P, Manas S, Chauhan LS (2011) Multiple insecticide resistance/susceptibility status of Culex quinquefasciatus, principal vector of bancroftian filariasis from filaria endemic areas of Northern India. Asian Pac J Trop Med 4(6):426–429

  24. Krishnaraj C, Jagan EG, Rajasekar S, Selvakumar P, Kalaichelvan PT, Mohan N (2010) Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Acalypha indica leaf extracts and its antibacterial activity against water borne pathogens. Coll Surf B Biointer 76(1):50–56

  25. Kumar V, Yadav SK (2009) Plant-mediated synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles and their applications. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 84:151–157

  26. Kumar V, Yadav SC, Yadav SK (2010) Syzygium cumini leaf and seed extract mediated biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and their characterization. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 85(10):1301–1309

  27. Kwan JL, Kluh S, Madon MB, Reisen WK (2010) West Nile virus emergence and persistence in Los Angeles, California, 2003–2008. Am J Trop Med Hyg 83:400–412

  28. Lalrotluanga LN, Senthil-Kumar N, Gurusubramanian G (2012) Insecticidal and repellent activity of Hiptage benghalensis L. Kruz (Malpighiaceae) against mosquito vectors. Parasitol Res 111:1007–1017

  29. Marimuthu S, Rahuman AA, Rajakumar G, Santhoshkumar T, Kirthi AV, Jayaseelan C, Bagavan A, Zahir AA, Elango G, Kamaraj C (2010) Evaluation of green synthesized silver nanoparticles against parasites. Parasitol Res 108(6):1541–1549

  30. Minjas JN, Sarda RK (1986) Laboratory observations on the toxicity of Swartzia madagascariens (leguminaceae) extract to mosquito larvae. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 80:460–461

  31. Mukunthan KS, Elumalai EK, Patel TN, Murty VR (2011) Catharanthus roseus: a natural source for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 1(4):270–274

  32. Mulvaney P (1996) Surface plasmon spectroscopy of nanosized metal particles. Langmuir 12:788–800

  33. Nabikhan A, Kandasamy K, Raj A, Alikunh NM (2010) Synthesis of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles by callus and leaf extracts from salt marsh plant, Sesuvium portulacastrum. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 79:488–493

  34. Nakkala JR, Mata R, Bhagat E, Sadras SR (2015) Green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles from Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract: study of antioxidant and anticancer activities. J Nanopart Res 17:151–166

  35. Naresh-Kumar A, Murugan K, Madhiyazhagan P, Kovendan K, Prasannakumar K, Thangamani S, Barnard D (2011) Mosquitocidal and water purification properties of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus. Parasitol Res 110(4):1435–1443

  36. Naresh-Kumar A, Murugan K, Rejeeth C, Madhiyazhagan P, Barnar DR (2012) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles for the control of mosquito vectors of malaria, filariasis, and dengue. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 12(3):262–268

  37. Naresh-Kumar A, Jeyalalitha T, Murugan K, Madhiyazhagan P (2013) Bioefficacy of plant-mediated gold nanoparticles and Anthocepholus cadamba on filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Insecta: Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 112:1053–1063

  38. Norris LC, Norris DE (2011) Insecticide resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes after the introduction of insecticide-treated bed nets in Macha, Zambia. J Vector Ecol 36(2):411–420

  39. Parashar UK, Saxenaa PS, Srivastava A (2009) Bioinspired synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Dig J Nanomater Biostruct 4:159–166

  40. Prasad TNVKV, Elumalai EK (2011) Biofabrication of Ag nanoparticles using Moringa oleifera leaf extract and their antimicrobial activity. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 1(6):439–443

  41. Prathna TC, Chandrasekaran N, Raichur AM, Mukherjee A (2011) Biomimetic synthesis of Ag NPs by Citrus limon (lemon) aqueous extract and theoretical prediction of particle size. Colloids Surf B: Biointer 82(1):152–159

  42. Rahuman AA, Gopalakrishnan G, Venkatesan P, Geetha K (2007) Larvicidal activity of some Euphorbiaceae plant extracts against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 102(7):867–873

  43. Rajakumar G, Rahuman A (2011) Larvicidal activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles using Eclipta prostrate leaf extract against filariasis and malaria vectors. Acta Trop 118(3):196–203

  44. Samuel S, Lalrotluanga R, Muthukumaran RB, Gurusubramanian G, Senthil-Kumar N (2014) Larvicidal activity of Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sweet and Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.) King & H. Rob. plant extracts against arboviral and filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Exp Parasitol 141:112–121

  45. Santhoshkumar T, Rahuman AA, Rajakumar G, Marimuthu S, Bagavan A, Jayaseelan C, Zahir AA, Elango G, Kamaraj C (2011) Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Nelumbo nucifera leaf extract and its larvicidal activity against malaria and filariasis vectors. Parasitol Res 108(3):693–702

  46. Sap-Iam N, Homklinchan C, Larpudomlert R, Warisnoicharoen W, Sereemaspun A, Dubas ST (2010) UV irradiation induced silver nanoparticles as mosquito larvicides. J Appl Sci 10(23):3132–3136

  47. Sathishkumar M, Sneha K, Won SW, Cho CWS, Kim-Yun YS (2009) Cinnamon zeylanicum bark extract and powder mediated green synthesis of nano-crystalline silver particles and its bactericidal activity. Colloids Surf Biointerfaces 73:332–338

  48. Sathishkumar G, Gobinath C, Karpagam K, Hemamalini V, Premkumar K, Sivaramakrishnan S (2012) Phyto-synthesis of silver nanoscale particles using Morinda citrifolia L. and its inhibitory activity against human pathogens. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 95:235–240

  49. Sathishkumar G, Gobinath C, Wilson A, Sivaramakrishnan S (2014) Dendrophthoe falcata (L.f) Ettingsh (Neem mistletoe): a potent bioresource to fabricate silver AgNPs for anticancer effect against human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Spectrochimica Acta A 128:285–90

  50. Sathyavathi R, Balamurali Krishna M, Venugopal RS, Saritha R, Narayana RD (2010) Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Coriandrum sativum leaf extract and their application in nonlinear optics. Adv Sci Lett 3:1–6

  51. Senthil-Kumar N, Varma P, Gurusubramanian G (2009) Larvicidal and adulticidal activities of some medicinal plants against the malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi (Liston). Parasitol Res 104:237–244

  52. Senthil-Kumar N, Gurusubramanian G, Murugan K (2014) Joint insecticidal action of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki with Annona squamosa L. and Prosopis juliflora Swartz DC on Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Proc Zool Soc (Calcutta) 67(1):8–17

  53. Shankar SS, Rai A, Ahmad A, Sastry MJ (2004) Rapid synthesis of Au, Ag and bimetallic Au shell nanoparticles using Neem. J Colloid Interface Sci 275:496–502

  54. Shrivastava S, Dash D (2010) Label-free colorimetric estimation of proteins using nanoparticles of silver. Nano Micro Lett 2:164–168

  55. Singhal G, Bhavesh R, Kasariya K, Sharma AR, Sing RP (2011) Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) leaf extract and screening its antimicrobial activity. J Nanopart Res 13:2981–2988

  56. Snedecor GW, Cochran WG (1989) Statistical methods, 8th edn. Iowa State University Press, Iowa

  57. Sondi I, Salopek S (2004) Silver nanoparticles as antimicrobial agents: a case study on E. coli as a model Gram-negative bacteria. J Colloid Interface Sci 275:177–182

  58. Soni N, Prakash S (2012) Synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the fungus Aspergillus niger and its efficacy against mosquito larvae. Reports in Parasitol 2:1–7

  59. Soni N, Prakash S (2014) Green nanoparticles for mosquito control. The Scientific World Journal Article ID 496362, 6 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/496362

  60. SPSS Inc. (2013) SPSS for Windows, Version 21.0. Release 21.0.0642. SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA

  61. Stuart BH (2002) Polymer analysis. Wiley, Chichester

  62. Suganya A, Murugan K, Kovendan K, Mahesh Kumar P, Hwang JS (2013) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Murraya koenigii leaf extract against Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti. Parasitol Res 112:1385–1397

  63. Turell MJ (2012) Members of the Culex pipiens complex as vectors of viruses. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 28(4):123–126

  64. Veerakumar K, Govindarajan M, Rajeswary M (2013) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Sida acuta (Malvaceae) leaf extract against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 112(12):4073–4085

  65. Veerakumar K, Govindarajan M, Rajeswary M, Muthukumaran U (2014) Mosquito larvicidal properties of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Heliotropium indicum (Boraginaceae) against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 113:2363–2373

  66. Velayutham K, Rahuman AA, Rajakumar G, Roopan SM, Elango G, Kamaraj C, Marimuthu S, Santhoshkumar T, Iyappan M, Siva C (2013) Larvicidal activity of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using bark aqueous extract of Ficus racemosa against Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex gelidus. Asian Pacific J Trop Med 6(2):95–101

  67. Vilchis-Nestora AR, Avalos-Borjaa M, Gomezb SA, Hernandezb JA, Olivasa A, Zepedaa TA (2009) Alternative bioreduction synthesis method for the preparation of Au(AgAu)/SiO2–Al2O3 catalysts: oxidation and hydrogenation of CO. Appl Catal B Environ 90:64–73

  68. Walenta G, Fullmann T (2004) Advances in quantitative XRD analysis for clincker, cements and cementitious additions. Powder Diffract 47:287–296

  69. Willems, Wildenberg VD (2005) Roadmap Report on Nanoparticles. W&W Espana s.l., Barcelona, Spain 1–57.

  70. World Health Organization (2005) Guidelines for laboratory and field testing of mosquito larvicides. Communicable disease control, prevention and eradication, WHO pesticide evaluation scheme. WHO,Geneva, 2005, WHO/CDS/WHOPES/GCDPP/1.3

  71. World Health Organization (2014) World Health Organization: Lymphatic Filariasis, Fact Sheet No 102. <www.who.int/inf-fs/en/fact102.html 2014 > (accessed March, 2014)

  72. Zhan G, Huang J, Lin L, Lin W, Emmanuel K, Li Q (2011) Synthesis of gold nanoparticles by Cacumen platycladi leaf extract and its simulated solution: toward the plant-mediated biosynthetic mechanism. J Nanopart Res 13:4957–4968

Download references


The authors are highly grateful to the Department of Biotechnology (DBT), New Delhi, Govt. of India for financial assistance in the form of State Biotech Hub (BT/04/NE/2009) to Mizoram University.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Author information

Correspondence to Nachimuthu Senthil Kumar.

Additional information

Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Lallawmawma, H., Sathishkumar, G., Sarathbabu, S. et al. Synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using Jasminum nervosum leaf extract and its larvicidal activity against filarial and arboviral vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Environ Sci Pollut Res 22, 17753–17768 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-5001-x

Download citation


  • Culex quinquefasciatus
  • FTIR
  • Jasminum nervosum
  • Larvicidal activity
  • Metal nanoparticles
  • TEM