Sulfadimethoxine (SDM) is an antibiotic commonly used in concentrated animal feeding operations and released into the environment via manure application on agricultural lands. Transformation of antibiotics in soil impacts the likelihood of their entry to water bodies, uptake by plants, and thus their effect on terrestrial and aquatic organisms. We conducted experiments to incubate SDM in a sandy loam soil in the presence of humification enzymes commonly found in natural soil, laccase, horseradish peroxidase, and lignin peroxidase. Incubation with the enzymes led to significant reduction in the fraction of SDM extractable from soil, indicating the formation of bound residues. Such transformation was enhanced when the organic matter content in soil is increased or when certain chemical mediators were used along with laccase. The study provided a basis for understanding the environmental fate of sulfonamides and help with the development of remediation methods to mitigate the release of sulfonamides from soil to water.
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There is no potential conflict of interest involved in this study. The study did not involve human participants or animals. All ethical standards were strictly followed.
Responsible editor: Robert Duran
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Singh, R., Sidhu, S.S., Zhang, H. et al. Removal of sulfadimethoxine in soil mediated by extracellular oxidoreductases. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22, 16868–16874 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-4893-9
- Soil-bound residue