Geographical variation in chemical tolerance within a species can significantly influence results of whole animal bioassays, yet a literature survey showed that the majority of articles using bioassays did not provide detail on the original field collection site of their test specimens confounding the ability for accurate replication and comparison of results. Biological variation as a result of population-specific tolerance, if not addressed, can be misinterpreted as experimental error. Our studies of two marine copepod species, Tigriopus japonicus and Tigriopus californicus, found significant intra- and inter-specific variation in tolerance to copper and tributyltin. Because both species tolerate copper concentrations orders of magnitude higher than those found in coastal waters, difference in copper tolerance may be a by-product of adaptation to other stressors such as high temperature. Controlling for inter-population tolerance variation will greatly strengthen the application of bioassays in chemical toxicity tests.
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The authors thank the editor and three anonymous reviewers for their assistance in strengthening the manuscript. This study was primarily supported by Sea Grant (NA10OAR417005) to SE and partially supported by the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong SAR Government via a General Research Fund (HKU703511P) to KMYL. The authors wish to acknowledge use of the Maptool program for generating the maps in this paper. Maptool is a product of SEATURTLE.ORG (information is available at www.seaturtle.org). The authors would also like to thank Shiven Chaudhry and Jennifer Ko for their assistance with acute toxicity tests.
Compliance with ethical standards
The authors assure that all procedures were performed in compliance with national and institutional guidelines for the protection of animal welfare.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
Responsible editor: Cinta Porte
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Sun, P.Y., Foley, H.B., Bao, V.W.W. et al. Variation in tolerance to common marine pollutants among different populations in two species of the marine copepod Tigriopus . Environ Sci Pollut Res 22, 16143–16152 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-4846-3
- Tigriopus japonicus
- Tigriopus californicus