Phenolic profile of Dunaliella tertiolecta growing under high levels of copper and iron
- 329 Downloads
The present study investigates the phenolic profile of exudates and extracts of the green algae Dunaliella tertiolecta, harvested in natural seawater in the absence (control) and in the presence of Cu(II) (315 and 790 nmol L−1) and Fe(III) (900 nmol L−1) in order to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds produced under metallic stress conditions. The presence of metal ions modifies the growth of cells and changes cell metabolism by producing phenolic compounds adapted to the solution. The use of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) permitted the identification of 14 phenolic constituents. The concentration and type of polyphenols detected in cell extracts and in solution are directly related with the metal and its concentration during growth cultures, achieving 1.4 times higher levels of polyphenols under 790 nmol Cu(II) L−1 with respect to the control experiments. Microalga excretes polyphenols to be adapted to the environmental conditions. Gentisic acid, (+) catechin and (−) epicatechin, the most prominent phenolic compounds detected in the algae extracts, showed high antioxidant activity in inhibiting 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. This potent activity may be related to its presence in cells and exudates in high concentrations.
KeywordsCopper Iron Phenolic compounds Growth inhibition Dunaliella tertiolecta
This study received financial support from the Project CTM2010-19517-MAR financed by the Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad in Spain. Our thanks to the Spanish Bank of Algae (BEA) in Gran Canaria for providing algal strains.
- Dillard CJ, German JB (2000) Phytochemicals: nutraceuticals and human health. J Sci Food Agric 80(12):1744–1756. doi: 10.1002/1097-0010(20000915)80:12,1744::AIDJSFA725.3.0.CO;2-W CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS) (2011) Scientific opinion on the reevaluation of butylated hydroxyanisole BHA (E 320) as a food additive. EFSA J 9(10):2392 (49pp) Google Scholar
- EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS) (2012) Scientific opinion on the reevaluation of butylated hydroxytoluene BHT (E 321) as a food additive. EFSA J 10(3):2588 (43pp) Google Scholar
- Imani S, Rezaei-Zarchi S, Hashemi M, Borna H, Javid A, Ali mohamad Zand AM, Abarghouei HB (2011) Hg, Cd and Pb heavy metal bioremediation by Dunaliella alga. J Med Plant Res 5(13):2775–2780Google Scholar
- Michalak A (2006) Phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity in plants growing under heavy metal stress. Pol J Environ Stud 15:523–530Google Scholar
- Özkoc HB, Taylan ZS (2010) Assessment of various parameters of metal biology in marine microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Dunaliella tertiolecta. Fresenius Environ Bull 19:29812986Google Scholar
- Reische DW, Lillard DA, Eitenmiller RR (2002) Antioxidants. In: Akoh CC, Min DB (eds) Food lipids: chemistry, nutrition and biotechnology. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 423–448Google Scholar