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Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 22, Issue 19, pp 15145–15153 | Cite as

Biodegradation of bisphenol A by an algal-bacterial system

  • Er Jin Eio
  • Minako Kawai
  • Chiaki Niwa
  • Masato Ito
  • Shuichi Yamamoto
  • Tatsuki Toda
Research Article

Abstract

The degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) by Chlorella sorokiniana and BPA-degrading bacteria was investigated. The results show that BPA was partially removed by a monoculture of C. sorokiniana, but the remaining BPA accounted for 50.2, 56.1, and 60.5 % of the initial BPA concentrations of 10, 20, and 50 mg L−1, respectively. The total algal BPA adsorption and accumulation were less than 1 %. C. sorokiniana-bacterial system effectively removed BPA with photosynthetic oxygen provided by the algae irrespective of the initial BPA concentration. The growth of C. sorokiniana in the algal system was inhibited by BPA concentrations of 20 and 50 mg L−1, but not in the algal-bacterial system. This observation indicates that bacterial growth in the algal-bacterial system reduced the BPA-inhibiting effect on algae. A total of ten BPA biodegradation intermediates were identified by GC-MS. The concentrations of the biodegradation intermediates decreased to a low level at the end of the experiment. The hypothetical carbon mass balance analysis showed that the amounts of oxygen demanded by the bacteria are insufficient for effective BPA degradation. However, adding an external carbon source could compensate for the oxygen shortage. This study demonstrates that the algal-bacterial system has the potential to remove BPA and its biodegradation intermediates.

Keywords

Algal-bacterial system Bacterial consortium Biodegradation Bisphenol A Inhibition Photosynthetic oxygen 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to express our gratitude to Kenji Tsuchiya, Masatoshi Kishi, Yukiko Sasakawa, and Xia Yuan Jun from Soka University, for their assistance in this study. We are grateful to the Hachioji Kitano Wastewater Treatment Plant of Japan for the preparation of the seed sludge. The present study was financially supported by “The Environment Research and Technology Development Fund” from the Ministry of the Environment, Japan (4-1406).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Er Jin Eio
    • 1
  • Minako Kawai
    • 2
    • 3
  • Chiaki Niwa
    • 3
  • Masato Ito
    • 3
  • Shuichi Yamamoto
    • 3
  • Tatsuki Toda
    • 3
  1. 1.Graduate School of EngineeringSoka UniversityTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Asian People’s ExchangeTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Department of Environmental Engineering for Symbiosis, Faculty of EngineeringSoka UniversityTokyoJapan

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