Biodegradation of bisphenol A by an algal-bacterial system
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The degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) by Chlorella sorokiniana and BPA-degrading bacteria was investigated. The results show that BPA was partially removed by a monoculture of C. sorokiniana, but the remaining BPA accounted for 50.2, 56.1, and 60.5 % of the initial BPA concentrations of 10, 20, and 50 mg L−1, respectively. The total algal BPA adsorption and accumulation were less than 1 %. C. sorokiniana-bacterial system effectively removed BPA with photosynthetic oxygen provided by the algae irrespective of the initial BPA concentration. The growth of C. sorokiniana in the algal system was inhibited by BPA concentrations of 20 and 50 mg L−1, but not in the algal-bacterial system. This observation indicates that bacterial growth in the algal-bacterial system reduced the BPA-inhibiting effect on algae. A total of ten BPA biodegradation intermediates were identified by GC-MS. The concentrations of the biodegradation intermediates decreased to a low level at the end of the experiment. The hypothetical carbon mass balance analysis showed that the amounts of oxygen demanded by the bacteria are insufficient for effective BPA degradation. However, adding an external carbon source could compensate for the oxygen shortage. This study demonstrates that the algal-bacterial system has the potential to remove BPA and its biodegradation intermediates.
KeywordsAlgal-bacterial system Bacterial consortium Biodegradation Bisphenol A Inhibition Photosynthetic oxygen
We would like to express our gratitude to Kenji Tsuchiya, Masatoshi Kishi, Yukiko Sasakawa, and Xia Yuan Jun from Soka University, for their assistance in this study. We are grateful to the Hachioji Kitano Wastewater Treatment Plant of Japan for the preparation of the seed sludge. The present study was financially supported by “The Environment Research and Technology Development Fund” from the Ministry of the Environment, Japan (4-1406).
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