Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 22, Issue 18, pp 14043–14049 | Cite as

Combined removal of a BTEX, TCE, and cis-DCE mixture using Pseudomonas sp. immobilized on scrap tyres

  • Qihong Lu
  • Renata Alves de Toledo
  • Fei Xie
  • Junhui Li
  • Hojae Shim
Research Article


The simultaneous aerobic removal of a mixture of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o,m,p-xylene (BTEX); cis-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE); and trichloroethylene (TCE) from the artificially contaminated water using an indigenous bacterial isolate identified as Pseudomonas plecoglossicida immobilized on waste scrap tyres was investigated. Suspended and immobilized conditions were compared for the removal of these volatile organic compounds. For the immobilized system, toluene, benzene, and ethylbenzene were completely removed, while the highest removal efficiencies of 99.0 ± 0.1, 96.8 ± 0.3, 73.6 ± 2.5, and 61.6 ± 0.9 % were obtained for o-xylene, m,p-xylene, TCE, and cis-DCE, respectively. The sorption kinetics of contaminants towards tyre surface was also evaluated, and the sorption capacity generally followed the order of toluene > benzene > m,p-xylene > o-xylene > ethylbenzene > TCE > cis-DCE. Scrap tyres showed a good capability for the simultaneous sorption and bioremoval of BTEX/cis-DCE/TCE mixture, implying a promising waste material for the removal of contaminant mixture from industrial wastewater or contaminated groundwater.


Bioremoval BTEX Cis-DCE Immobilization Mixture Scrap tyres Sorption 



This work was supported by the University of Macau Multi-Year Research Grants, MYRG204 (Y3-L4)-FST11-SHJ and MYRG2014-00112-FST, and grants from the Macau Science and Technology Development Fund (FDCT/063/2013/A2) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51409106).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qihong Lu
    • 1
  • Renata Alves de Toledo
    • 1
  • Fei Xie
    • 1
  • Junhui Li
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hojae Shim
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Science and TechnologyUniversity of MacauMacauChina
  2. 2.College of Natural Resources and Environmental ScienceSouth China Agricultural UniversityGuangzhouChina

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