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Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 22, Issue 17, pp 13083–13093 | Cite as

Ecophysiological and antioxidant traits of Salvia officinalis under ozone stress

  • Elisa Pellegrini
  • Alessandra Francini
  • Giacomo Lorenzini
  • Cristina Nali
Research Article

Abstract

Ecophysiological and antioxidant traits were evaluated in sage (Salvia officinalis) plants exposed to 120 ppb of ozone for 90 consecutive days (5 h day−1). At the end of fumigation, plants showed slight leaf yellowing that could be considered the first visual symptom of leaf senescence. Ozone-stressed leaves showed (1) reduced photosynthetic activity (−70 % at the end of exposure), (2) chlorophyll loss (−59 and −56 % of chlorophyll a and b concentrations, starting from 30 days from the beginning of exposure), and (3) cellular water deficit (−12 % of the relative water content at the end of the fumigation). These phenomena are indicative of oxidative stress in the chloroplasts (as confirmed by the strong degradation of β-carotene) despite the photoprotection conferred by xanthophyll cycle [as demonstrated by the significant rise of de-epoxidation index, reaching the maximum value at the end of the treatment (+69 %)], antioxidant compounds [as confirmed by the increase of phenols (in particular caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid)], and water-soluble carbohydrates (especially monosaccharides). By means of combined ecophysiological and biochemical approaches, this study demonstrates that S. officinalis is able to activate an adaptive survival mechanism allowing the plant to complete its life cycle even under oxidative stressful conditions.

Keywords

Carbohydrates Carotenoids Medicinal plants Oxidative stress Phenolic acids Xanthophyll cycle 

Abbreviations

%D

Fraction of absorbed light that was thermally dissipated in PSII antennae

ΦPSII

Actual quantum yield of PSII

A

Photosynthetic activity

ANOVA

Analysis of variance

A + V

Anteraxanthin + violaxanthin

CEO3

Cumulative exposure to O3

Ci

Intercellular CO2 concentration

Chl

Chlorophyll

CUOs

Cumulative O3 Uptakes

DEPS

De-epoxidation index value

F0

Minimal fluorescence

F0

Minimal fluorescence in the light-adapted state

FBE

From the beginning of exposure

Fm

Maximal fluorescence

Fm

Maximal fluorescence in the light-adapted state

Fs

Steady-state fluorescence yield in the light-adapted state

FW

Fresh weight

Gw

Stomatal conductance to water vapor

LHC

Light harvesting complex

O3

Ozone

PFD

Photon flux density

PSI

Photosystem I

PSII

Photosystem II

qNP

No photochemical quenching

qP

Photochemical quenching

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

RWC

Relative water content

WUEi

Intrinsic water use efficiency

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elisa Pellegrini
    • 1
  • Alessandra Francini
    • 1
  • Giacomo Lorenzini
    • 1
    • 2
  • Cristina Nali
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Agriculture, Food and EnvironmentUniversity of PisaPisaItaly
  2. 2.Interdepartmental Research Center NutrafoodUniversity of PisaPisaItaly

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