Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 22, Issue 12, pp 9563–9569 | Cite as

The environmental factors impact on the conservation of an historic marine quay—a baseline study

  • A. C. Antunes
  • J. Coroado
  • D. Boaventura
  • F. Rocha
Short Research and Discussion Article


Changes effected by environmental factors on the biological colonization of an historic marine limestone quay were considered, as a baseline study for the monitoring and test plan definition. Environmental factors play a fundamental role in the deterioration of stone monuments, particularly those located in a marine environment. This eighteenth century quay, situated at the Royal Square of the Portuguese capital, is subject to tidal movement, marine aerosol, high levels of pollution and vibration and is partly submerged in polluted water. Part of the quay was dismantled in 1997 and returned to the river water in 2008; since then, progressive (re)colonization by biological organisms has occurred. By means of periodic photographic registry, from 2010 to 2014, the main alterations and deposits on its surfaces were registered. The present paper discusses and presents a vulnerability assessment and monitoring plan for monuments in a marine environment with a view to establishing a preventive conservation plan.


Limestone quay Architectural heritage Environmental pollutants Marine environment Biological colonization Monitoring 



The authors thank the financial support provided by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology-POPH funding programme, PEst-OE/CTE/UI4035/2014 (UI Geobiotec), and PEst-OE/MAR/UI0199/2014 (Centre of Oceanography) and to SIMTEJO for the results of the River Tagus microbiological analyses presented as Fig. 7. The authors are also grateful to Christine Blaeuer (Conservation Science Consulting Sarl) for the review of the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. C. Antunes
    • 1
    • 2
  • J. Coroado
    • 1
    • 3
  • D. Boaventura
    • 4
    • 5
  • F. Rocha
    • 1
  1. 1.GeoBioTec - University of AveiroAveiroPortugal
  2. 2.ARTIS - IHA/FL/University of LisbonLisbonPortugal
  3. 3.Polytechnic Institute of TomarTomarPortugal
  4. 4.Escola Superior de Educação João de DeusLisbonPortugal
  5. 5.Centro de Oceanografia, MARE - Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Laboratório Marítimo da GuiaFaculdade de Ciências da Universidade de LisboaCascaisPortugal

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