Assessment of the non-protein amino acid BMAA in Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis after feeding with estuarine cyanobacteria
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To determine whether 2-amino-3-methylaminopropanoic acid (BMAA) could be taken up by marine organisms from seawater or their diet mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis, collected from the North Atlantic Portuguese shore, were exposed to seawater doped with BMAA standard (for up to 48 h) or fed with cyanobacteria (for up to 15 days). Mussels were able to uptake BMAA when exposed to seawater. Mussels fed with cyanobacteria Synechocystis salina showed a rise in BMAA concentration during feeding and a decline in concentration during the subsequent depuration period. Cells from the gills and hepatopancreas of mussels fed with S. salina showed lessened metabolic activity in mussels fed for longer periods of time. A hot acidic digestion (considered to account for total BMAA) was compared with a proteolytic digestion, using pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin. The latter was able to extract from mussels approximately 30 % of total BMAA. Implications for BMAA trophic transfers in marine ecosystems are discussed.
KeywordsBMAA Cyanobacteria Cyanotoxins Estuaries Mussel Neurotoxins North Atlantic
The authors wish to thank Johan Eriksson and Ralph Urbatzka for kindly providing laboratory supplies. The authors would like to acknowledge Professor Birgitta Bergman, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, University of Stockholm, and the European Cooperation in Science and Technology, COST Action ES 1105 “CYANOCOST-Cyanobacterial blooms and toxins in water resources: Occurrence, impacts and management” for adding value to this study through networking and knowledge sharing with European experts and researchers in the field.
This research was funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) through the project PharmAtlantic—Atlantic Area Operational Programme (Interreg IVB transnational grant 2009-1/117) and through the COMPETE—Operational Competitiveness Programme; by the Foundation for Science and Technology, Portugal (FCT) under the project “PEst-C/MAR/LA0015/2013” and the fellowship SFRH/BPD/44373/2008; and by the project MARBIOTECH (NORTE-07-0124-FEDER-000047), co-financed by the North Portugal Regional Operational Programme (ON.2 – O Novo Norte), under the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF), through the ERDF.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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