Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 22, Issue 16, pp 12083–12091 | Cite as

Nonylphenol biodegradation, functional gene abundance and bacterial community in bioaugmented sediment: effect of external carbon source

  • Zhao Wang
  • Yu Dai
  • Qun Zhao
  • Ningning Li
  • Qiheng Zhou
  • Shuguang XieEmail author
Research Article


Nonylphenol (NP) biodegradation in river sediment using Stenotrophomonas strain Y1 and Sphingobium strain Y2 were proved to be an effective strategy to remediate NP pollution in our earlier study. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of glucose addition on their ability to degrade NP in both liquid cultures and sediment microcosms. The shift in bacterial community structure and relative abundance of NP degraders in sediment microcosms were characterized using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The proportion of NP-degrading alkB and sMO genes was assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The growth of Stenotrophomonas strain Y1 and its NP biodegradation efficiency were inhibited by glucose supplementation, while the relative abundance of alkB gene increased. However, NP degradation, as well as the growth of added degraders and proportion of sMO gene, was enhanced in the glucose-amended sediment microcosms inoculated with Sphingobium strain Y2. Moreover, external glucose addition altered bacterial community structures in bioaugmented sediment microcosms, depending on the level of glucose dosage.


Nonylphenol Bioaugmentation Sediment microcosms Microbial community Functional gene Stenotrophomonas Sphingobium 



This work was financially supported by special fund of State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control (No. 14Y02ESPCP).

Conflict of interest

This work has no actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations.


  1. Ahel M, Schaffner C, Giger W (1996) Behaviour of alkylphenol polyethoxylate surfactants in the aquatic environment.3. Occurrence and elimination of their persistent metabolites during infiltration of river water to groundwater. Water Res 30:37–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bradley PM, Barber LB, Kolpin DW, Mcmahon PB, Chapelle FH (2008) Potential for 4-n-nonylphenol biodegradation in stream sediments. Environ Toxicol Chem 27:260–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chakraborty J, Dutta TK (2006) Isolation of a Pseudomonas sp capable of utilizing 4-nonylphenol in the presence of phenol. J Microbiol Biotechnol 16:1740–1746Google Scholar
  4. Chang BV, Chiang F, Yuan SY (2005) Biodegradation of nonylphenol in sewage sludge. Chemosphere 60:1652–1659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chang BV, Liu CL, Yuan SY, Cheng CY, Ding WH (2008) Biodegradation of nonylphenol in mangrove sediment. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 61:325–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cirja M, Hommes G, Ivashechkin P, Prell J, Schaffer A, Corvini P, Lenz M (2009) Impact of bio-augmentation with Sphingomonassp strain TTNP3 in membrane bioreactors degrading nonylphenol. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 4:183–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Clarke KR, Warwick RM (2001) Change in marine communities: an approach to statistical analysis and interpretation. 2nd ed Plymouth: Plymouth Marine Laboratory, [PRIMER-E]Google Scholar
  8. Corvini P, Elend M, Hollender J, Ji R, Preiss A, Vinken R, Schaffer A (2005) Metabolism of a nonylphenol isomer by Sphingomonas sp strain TTNP3. Environ Chem Lett 2:185–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Corvini PFX, Schaeffer A, Schlosser D (2006) Microbial degradation of nonylphenol and other alkylphenols—our evolving view. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 72:223–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. De Weert J, Streminska M, Hua D, Grotenhuis T, Langenhoff A, Rijnaarts H (2010) Nonylphenol mass transfer from field-aged sediments and subsequent biodegradation in reactors mimicking different river conditions. J Soils Sediments 10:77–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dehghani M, Nasseri S, Zamanian Z (2013) Biodegradation of alachlor in liquid and soil cultures under variable carbon and nitrogen sources by bacterial consortium isolated from corn field soil. Iran J Environ Health Sci Eng 10:21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ding C, Wang ZP, Cai WM, Zhou QQ, Zhou JY (2014) Biodegradation of phenol with Candida tropicalis isolated from aerobic granules. Fresenius Environ Bull 23:887–895Google Scholar
  13. Fahrenfeld N, Zoeckler J, Widdowson MA, Pruden A (2013) Effect of biostimulants on 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) degradation and bacterial community composition in contaminated aquifer sediment enrichments. Biodegradation 24:179–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fuentes S, Mendez V, Aguila P, Seeger M (2014) Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons: catabolic genes, microbial communities, and applications. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 98:4781–4794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fujii K, Urano N, Kimura S, Nomura Y, Karube I (2000) Microbial degradation of nonylphenol in some aquatic environments. Fish Sci 66:44–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fujii K, Urano N, Ushio H, Satomi M, Kimura S (2001) Sphingomonas cloacae sp nov, a nonylphenol-degrading bacterium isolated from wastewater of a sewage-treatment plant in Tokyo. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51:603–610Google Scholar
  17. Guo QW, Zhang JX, Wan R, Xie SG (2014) Impacts of carbon sources on simazine biodegradation by Arthrobacter strain SD3-25 in liquid culture and soil microcosm. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 89:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Liu Y, Zhang JX, Zhang XL, Xie SG (2014) Depth-related changes of sediment ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in a high-altitude freshwater wetland. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 98:5697–5707Google Scholar
  19. Meyer DD, Beker SA, Buecker F, Peralba MDR, Frazzon APG, Osti JF, Andreazza R, Camargo FAD, Bento FM (2014) Bioremediation strategies for diesel and biodiesel in oxisol from southern Brazil. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 95:356–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Micic V, Kruge MA, Hofmann T (2013) Variations of common riverine contaminants in reservoir sediments. Sci Total Environ 458–460:90–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Naylor CG (1995) Environmental fate and safety of nonylphenolethoxylates. Text Chem Color 27:29–33Google Scholar
  22. Ortiz I, Velasco A, Le Borgne S, Revah S (2013) Biodegradation of DDT by stimulation of indigenous microbial populations in soil with cosubstrates. Biodegradation 24:215–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Patil SS, Adetutu EM, Sheppard PJ, Morrison P, Menz IR, Ball AS (2014) Site-specific pre-evaluation of bioremediation technologies for chloroethene degradation. Int J Environ Sci Technol 11:1869–1880CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pothitou P, Voutsa D (2008) Endocrine disrupting compounds in municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants in Northern Greece. Chemosphere 73:1716–1723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ramos DT, da Silva MLB, Chiaranda HS, Alvarez PJJ, Corseuil HX (2013) Biostimulation of anaerobic BTEX biodegradation under fermentative methanogenic conditions at source-zone groundwater contaminated with a biodiesel blend (B20). Biodegradation 24:333–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Soares A, Guieysse B, Delgado O, Mattiasson B (2003) Aerobic biodegradation of nonylphenol by cold-adapted bacteria. Biotechnol Lett 25:731–738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Soares A, Guieysse B, Jefferson B, Cartmell E, Lester JN (2008) Nonylphenol in the environment: a critical review on occurrence, fate, toxicity and treatment in wastewaters. Environ Int 34:1033–1049CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Stucki JW, Lee K, Goodman BA, Kostka JE (2007) Effects of in situ biostimulation on iron mineral speciation in a sub-surface soil. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 71:835–843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sun WM, Sun XX, Cupples AM (2014a) Presence, diversity and the enumeration of toluene degrading functional genes (bssA and bamA) across a range of redox conditions and inoculum sources. Biodegradation 25:189–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sun WM, Sun XX, Cupples AM (2014b) Identification of Desulfosporosinus as toluene-assimilating microorganisms from a methanogenic consortium. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 88:13–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tanghe T, Dhooge V, Verstraete W (1999) Isolation of a bacterial strain able to degrade branched nonylphenol. Appl Environ Microbiol 65:746–751Google Scholar
  32. Toscano G, Colarieti ML, Anton A, Greco G, Biro B (2014) Natural and enhanced biodegradation of propylene glycol in airport soil. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21:9028–9035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Toyama T, Murashita M, Kobayashi K, Kikuchi S, Sei K, Tanaka Y, Ike M, Mori K (2011) Acceleration of nonylphenol and 4-tert-octylphenol degradation in sediment by Phragmitesaustralis and associated rhizosphere bacteria. Environ Sci Technol 45:6524–6530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wallisch S, Gril T, Dong X, Welzl G, Bruns C, Heath E, Engel M, Suhadolc M, Schloter M (2014) Effects of different compost amendments on the abundance and composition of alkB harboring bacterial communities in a soil under industrial use contaminated with hydrocarbons. Front Microbiol 5:96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wang Z, Yang YY, Sun WM, Xie SG, Liu Y (2014a) Nonylphenol biodegradation in river sediment and associated shifts in community structures of bacteria and ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 106:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wang Z, Yang YY, Sun WM, Xie SG (2014b) Biodegradation of nonylphenol by two alphaproteobacterial strains in liquid culture and sediment microcosm. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 92:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wang Z, Yang YY, Sun WM, Dai Y, Xie SG (2015) Variation of nonylphenol-degrading gene abundance and bacterial community structure in bioaugmented sediment microcosm. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:2342–2349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wasmund K, Burns KA, Kurtboke DI, Bourne DG (2009) Novel alkane hydroxylase gene (alkB) diversity in sediments associated with hydrocarbon seeps in the Timor Sea, Australia. Appl Environ Microbiol 75:7391–7398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Watanabe K, Miyashita M, Harayama S (2000) Reclamation of an activated-sludge microbial consortium by selective biostimulation. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 54:719–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Watanabe W, Hori Y, Nishimura S, Takagi A, Kikuchi M, Sawai J (2012) Bacterial degradation and reduction in the estrogen activity of 4-nonylphenol. Biocontrol Sci 17:143–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Xie SG, Wan R, Wang Z, Wang QF (2013) Atrazine biodegradation by Arthrobacter strain DAT1: effect of glucose supplementation and change of the soil microbial community. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:4078–4084CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yang YY, Wang J, Liao JQ, Xie SG, Huang Y (2014) Distribution of naphthalene dioxygenase genes in crude oil-contaminated soils. Microb Ecol 68:785–793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ye M, Sun M, Ni N, Chen Y, Liu Z, Gu C, Bian Y, Hu F, Li H, Kengara FO, Jiang X (2014) Role of cosubstrate and bioaccessibility played in the enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in a paddy soil by nitrate and methyl-beta-cyclodextrin amendments. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21:7785–7796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zgola-Grzeskowiak A, Grzeskowiak T, Rydlichowski R, Lukaszewski Z (2009) Determination of nonylphenol and short-chained nonylphenolethoxylates in drain water from an agricultural area. Chemosphere 75:513–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zhao CC, Xie HJ, Mu Y, Xu XL, Zhang J, Liu C, Liang S, Ngo HH, Guo WS, Xu JT, Wang Q (2014) Bioremediation of endosulfan in laboratory-scale constructed wetlands: effect of bioaugmentation and biostimulation. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21:12827–12835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zhou XD, Wang QF, Wang Z, Xie SG (2013) Nitrogen impacts on atrazine-degrading Arthrobacter strain and bacterial community structure in soil microcosms. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:2484–2491CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhao Wang
    • 1
  • Yu Dai
    • 1
  • Qun Zhao
    • 1
  • Ningning Li
    • 2
  • Qiheng Zhou
    • 1
  • Shuguang Xie
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and EngineeringPeking UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Yuanpei CollegePeking UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations