Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 22, Issue 16, pp 12062–12072 | Cite as

Natural radioactivity in tap waters from the private wells in the surroundings of the former Žirovski Vrh uranium mine and the age-dependent dose assessment

  • Ljudmila Benedik
  • Leja Rovan
  • Hiacinta Klemenčič
  • Ivan Gantar
  • Helena Prosen
Research Article

Abstract

Activity concentration of 238U, 234U, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 210Po in tap water from selected springs and private wells in the area of the former uranium mine at Žirovski Vrh were determined. A total of 22 tap water samples were collected at consumer’s houses. The results show that the activity concentrations of uranium in water samples are in range (0.17–372) and (0.22–362) mBq L−1 for 238U and 234U, respectively. Radium activity concentrations are in range (0.14–16.7) and (0.9–11.7) mBq L−1 for 226Ra and 228Ra, respectively. 210Po activity concentration is in range (0.28–8.0) mBq L−1 and can be regarded as the lowest amongst all analysed radionuclides. The range for 210Pb is (0.5–24.6) mBq L−1. Based on the results obtained for activity concentrations of six radionuclides, the committed effective dose for three different age groups of population were estimated. It was found that the committed effective dose was well below the recommended value of 100 μSv year−1, ranging from 2.3 to 34.3 μSv year−1 for adults, from 3.5 to 32.0 μSv year−1 for children (7–12 years) and from 3.0 to 23.3 μSv year−1 for infants.

Keywords

Tap water Natural radionuclides Dose assessment Age groups 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was financially supported by Ministry of Education, Science and Sport of Slovenia (Project P1-0143). We acknowledge the assistance of the Žirovski Vrh uranium mine in the sampling.

Compliance with ethical standards

All authors declare that this work is original. The presented research does not involve human participants and/or animals. All authors read the manuscript and agreed with the publishing.

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Beyermann M, Bunger T, Schmidt K, Obrikat D (2010) Occurrence of natural radioactivity in public water supplies in Germany: 238U, 234U, 235U, 228Ra, 226Ra, 222Rn, 210Pb, 210Po and gross α activity concentrations. Radiat Prot Dosim 141:72–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Benedik L (2013) An overview of results obtained in intercomparison exercises for determination of actinides. Appl Radiat Isotop 81:10–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Benedik L, Klemenčič H, Repinc U, Vreček P (2003) Uranium and its decay products in samples contaminated with uranium mine and mill waste. J Phys IV France 107:147–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Benedik L, Jeran Z (2012) Radiological of natural and mineral drinking waters in Slovenia. Radiat Prot Dosim 141:72–81Google Scholar
  5. Benedik L, Vasile M, Spasova Y, Wätjen U (2009) Sequential determination of 210Po and uranium radioisotopes in drinking water by alpha-particle spectrometry. Appl Radiat Isotop 67:770–775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Byrne AR, Benedik L (1988) Determination of uranium at trace levels by radiochemical neutron-activation activation analysis employing radiochemical yield evaluation. Talanta 35:161–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cevik U, Damla N, Karahan G, Celebi N, Kobya AI (2006) Natural radioactivity in tap waters of eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. Radiat Prot Dosim 118:88–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Currie LA (1968) Limits for qualitative detection and quantitative determination, application to radiochemistry. Anal Chem 40:586–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Eichrom (2001) Analytical procedures-uranium and thorium in water-ACW03. Ver 1.7. Analytical Procedures, Eichrom Technologies, IncGoogle Scholar
  10. EU (2013) European Union Council directive 2013/51/EURATOM of 22 October 2013 laying down requirements for the protection of the health of the general public with regard to radioactive substances in water intended for human consumption. OJ L296/12 (7.11.2013)Google Scholar
  11. Hindman FD (1983) Neodymium fluoride mounting for alpha spectrometric determination of uranium, plutonium and americium. Anal Chem 55:2460–2461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Horwitz EP, Chiarizia R, Dietz ML, Diamond H (1993) Separation and preconcentration of actinides from acidic media by extraction chromatography. Anal Chim Acta 281:361–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. HyperLab (2005) System, installation and quick start guide. HyperLabs Software, Budapest, HungaryGoogle Scholar
  14. IAEA (1996) International basic safety standards for protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. Safety Report Series, No. 115, International Atomic Energy Agency, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  15. ISO (2006) Standard ISO 5667-5: Water quality—sampling—part 5: guidance on sampling of drinking water from treatment works and piped distribution systems. International Organization for Standardization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  16. Jia G, Torri G, Magro L (2009) Concentrations of 238U, 234U, 235U, 232Th, 230Th, 228Th, 226Ra, 228Ra, 224Ra, 210Po, 210Pb and 212Pb in drinking water in Italy: reconciling safety standards based on measurements of gross α and β. J Environ Radioact 100:941–949CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jobbagy V, Kavasi N, Somlai J, Dombovari P, Kardos R, Kovacs T (2010) Radioanalytical investigations of uranium concentrations in natural spring, mineral, spa and drinking waters in Hungary. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 286:417–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kobal I, Kristan J, Škofljanec M, Jerančič S, Ančik M (1978) Radioactivity of spring and surface waters in the region of the uranium ore deposit at Žirovski vrh. J Radioanal Chem 44:307–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lozano JC, Fernandez F, Gomez JMG (1997) Determination of radium isotopes by BaSO4 coprecipitation for the preparation of α-spectrometric sources. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 223:133–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Minczewski J, Chwastowska J, Dybczynski R (1982) Separation and preconcentration methods in inorganic trace analysis. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. Rožmarić M, Rogić M, Benedik L, Štrok M (2012) Natural radionuclides in bottled drinking waters produced in Croatia and their contribution to radiation dose. Sci Tot Environ 437:53–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rožmarić M, Rogić M, Benedik L, Barišić D, Planinšek P (2014) Radiological characterization of tap waters in Croatia and the age dependent dose assessment. Chemosphere 111:272–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sill CW, Williams RL (1981) Preparation of actinides for alpha spectrometry without electrodeposition. Anal Chem 53:415–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Skaberne D (2002) Facies, development and interpretation of sedimentary environment of the uranium-bearing Brebovnica Member of the Val Gardena Formation in the Žirovski vrh area, W Slovenia. Geologija 45:163–188 (in Slovene)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Skwarzec B, Struminska DI, Borylo A (2001) The radionuclides 234U, 238U and 210Po in drinking water in Gdansk agglomeration (Poland). J Radioanal Nucl Chem 250:315–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Trajanova M, Gantar I (2005) Landslide Boršt, geological factors. Geološki zbornik 18:124–125 (in Slovene)Google Scholar
  27. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation UNSCEAR (2000) Report to the general assembly, with scientific annexes, vol. I. Sources and effects of ionizing radiationGoogle Scholar
  28. Vajda N, La Rosa J, Zeisler R, Danesi P, Kis-Benedek GY (1997) A novel technique for the simultaneous determination of 210Pb and 210Po using a crown ether. J Environ Radioactivity 37:355–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Vreček P, Benedik L, Repinc U, Stegnar P, Gantar, I (2002) Radionuclides in underground water in an area contaminated with uranium mill waste. In Uranium in the aquatic environment, 85-92. Springer Berlin HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  30. Wallner G, Steininger G (2007) Radium isotopes and 222Rn in Austrian drinking waters. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 274:511–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. World Health Organization WHO (1998) Guidelines for drinking-water quality: health criteria and other supporting information, second edition, Vol. 2, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  32. World Health Organization WHO (2004) Guidelines for drinking water quality, recommendation, third edition, Vol. 1, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  33. World Health Organisation WHO (2011) Guidelines for drinking water quality, http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/2011/dwq_chapters/en/ 4th edition, Geneva, Switzerland.
  34. Wrenn ME, Durbin PW, Howard B, Lipsztein J, Rundo J, Still ET, Willis DL (1985) Metabolism of ingested U and Ra. Health Phys 48:601–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Jožef Stefan InstituteLjubljanaSlovenia
  2. 2.Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical TechnologyUniversity of LjubljanaLjubljanaSlovenia
  3. 3.Žirovski Vrh Mine Ltd.Gorenja vasSlovenia

Personalised recommendations