Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 22, Issue 18, pp 14007–14017 | Cite as

Differential responses of C3 and CAM native Brazilian plant species to a SO2- and SPMFe-contaminated Restinga

  • Luzimar Campos da SilvaEmail author
  • Talita Oliveira de Araújo
  • Carlos Alberto Martinez
  • Francisco de Almeida Lobo
  • Aristéa Alves Azevedo
  • Marco Antonio Oliva
Research Article


Aiming to evaluate responses in terms of growth rates, physiological parameters, and degree of sensitivity to SO2 and SPMFe in Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae, a C3 species) and Clusia hilariana Schlecht (Clusiaceae, a CAM species); saplings were exposed to emissions from a pelletizing factory for 7 months. The species were distributed along a transect (200, 500, 800, 1400, and 1700 m away from the emission source), and analyses were performed after 71, 118, and 211 days of exposure to the pollutants. E. uniflora received higher superficial deposition of particulate iron. The highest total iron foliar contents were observed 200 m away from the emission source in both plant species, while the highest total sulfur foliar contents were observed 200 m away in C. hilariana and 800 m away in E. uniflora. E. uniflora presented decreased values of height growth rate, number of necrotic leaves, chlorophyll analysis (SPAD index) and transpiration, in relation to the distances from the emission source. C. hilariana showed decreased values of height growth rate, number of leaves, number of necrotic leaves, total ionic permeability, stomatal conductance, transpiration, net CO2 assimilation, and total dry matter, in relation to distances from the emission source. In relation to the days of exposure, both species presented increased number of necrotic leaves and foliar phytotoxicity index, and decreased values in the chlorophyll analysis. The two native plant species, both of which occur in the Brazilian Restinga, showed damage when exposed to emissions from an iron ore pelletizing factory. C. hilariana was considered the most sensitive species due to the decreased values in a higher number of variables after exposition.


Eugenia uniflora Clusia hilariana Native plants Pollution Sensitive species Symptomatology 



The authors thank for the research productivity scholarships granted to L.C. Silva (309170/2012-5) and A.A. Azevedo (312190/2013-1) and the agreement firmed between the Federal University of Viçosa (UFV) and SAMARCO Mining Company.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luzimar Campos da Silva
    • 1
    Email author
  • Talita Oliveira de Araújo
    • 1
  • Carlos Alberto Martinez
    • 2
  • Francisco de Almeida Lobo
    • 3
  • Aristéa Alves Azevedo
    • 1
  • Marco Antonio Oliva
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Biologia VegetalUniversidade Federal de ViçosaViçosaBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão PretoUniversidade de São PauloRibeirão PretoBrazil
  3. 3.Departamento de Solos e Engenharia RuralUniversidade Federal de Mato GrossoCuiabáBrazil

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