A comparison of the sublethal and lethal toxicity of four pesticides in Hyalella azteca and Chironomus dilutus
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Laboratory toxicity testing is the primary tool used for surface water environmental risk assessment; however, there are critical information gaps regarding the sublethal effects of pesticides. In 10-day exposures, we assessed the lethal and sublethal (motility and growth) toxicities of four commonly used pesticides, bifenthrin, permethrin, cyfluthrin, and chlorpyrifos, on two freshwater invertebrates, Chironomus dilutus and Hyalella azteca. Pyrethroids were more toxic than the organophosphate chlorpyrifos in both species. Bifenthrin was most toxic to H. azteca survival and growth. Cyfluthrin was most toxic to C. dilutus. However, cyfluthrin had the greatest effect on motility on both H. azteca and C. dilutus. The evaluated concentrations of chlorpyrifos did not affect C. dilutus motility or growth, but significantly impacted H. azteca growth. Motility served as the most sensitive endpoint in assessing sublethal effects at low concentrations for both species, while growth was a good indicator of toxicity for all four pesticides for H. azteca. The integration of sublethal endpoints in ambient water monitoring and pesticide regulation efforts could improve identification of low-level pesticide concentrations that may eventually cause negative effects on food webs and community structure in aquatic environments.
KeywordsSpecies selection Sublethal endpoint Pyrethroid Organophosphate Growth Motility Ecological risk assessment
The authors thank Linda Deanovic, Krista Hoffmann, A. Keith Miles, Jade Peralta, and Marie Stillway for their support. We are particularly grateful to Inge Werner who was involved in a pre-study for this project and who served as a mentor for Simone Hasenbein during her entire Ph.D. project. This study was funded by the State and Federal Contractors Water Agency (contract no. 15-33 to REC), California Department of Pesticide Regulation (contract no. 10-C0096 and 13-C0022 to SPL), and a postgraduate scholarship by Bayerische Forschungsstiftung, Germany (contract no. DOK-121-10 to JG). The authors acknowledge the support by the Faculty Graduate Center Weihenstephan of TUM Graduate School at Technische Universität München, Germany.
Compliance with ethical standards
Accepted principles of ethical and professional conduct have been followed in the study. The authors declare no potential conflicts of interest (financial or non-financial), and the welfare of animals was considered according to the relevant laws (only invertebrates were used here).
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