Long-term exposure of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) to ZnO nanoparticles: anatomical and ultrastructural responses
- 432 Downloads
Rapid development of nanotechnology in recent years has raised concerns about nanoparticle (NPs) release into the environment and its adverse effects on living organisms. The present study is the first comprehensive report on the anatomical and ultrastructural changes of a variety of cells after long-term exposure of plant to NPs or bulk material particles (BPs). Light and electron microscopy revealed some anatomical and ultrastructural modifications of the different types of cell in the root and leaf, induced by both types of treatment. Zinc oxide (ZnO) BPs-induced modifications were surprisingly more than those induced by ZnO NPs. The modifications induced by ZnO BPs or ZnO NPs were almost similar to those induced by excess Zn. Zn content of the root and leaf of both ZnO NPs- and ZnO BPs-treated plants was severely increased, where the increase was greater in the plants treated with ZnO BPs. Overall, these results indicate that the modifications induced by ZnO particles can be attributed, at least partly, to the Zn2+ dissolution by ZnO particles rather than their absorption by root and their subsequent effects.
KeywordsEnvironmental pollution Nanoparticle Phytotoxicity Zinc oxide
This work was supported by the Faculty of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, under Grant Number 24427. The authors thank Dr. Azizi for procuring the standard seeds of B. napus. The authors are grateful to Mrs Fatemeh Naseri and Mrs Roksana Pesian for preparing the samples for TEM and taking TEM micrographs, respectively.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Burbulis N, Kuprienė R, Blinstrubienė A (2008) Callus induction and plant regeneration from somatic tissue in spring rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). Biogeosciences 54(4):258–263Google Scholar
- Hernandez-Viezcas JA, Castillo-Michel H, Servin AD, Peralta-Videa JR, Gardea-Torresdey JL (2011) Spectroscopic verification of Zn absorption and distribution in the desert plant Prosopis juliflora-velutina (velvet mesquite) treated with ZnO nanoparticles. Chem Eng J 170:346–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kabata-Pendias A (2011) Trace elements in soils and plants. CRC press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
- Kalra YP (1998) Handbook of methods for plant analysis. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
- Marschner H (1995) Mineral nutrition of higher plants. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Priester JH, Ge Y, Mielke RE, Horst AM, Moritz SC, Espinosa K, Gelb J, Walker SL, Nisbet RM, An YJ, Schimel JP, Palmer RG, Hernandez-Viezcas JA, Zhao L, Gardea-Torresdey JL, Holden PA (2012) Soybean susceptibility to manufactured nanomaterials with evidence for food quality and soil fertility interruption. Proc Natl Acad Sci 109(37):14734–14735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rufner R, Barker AV (1984) Ultrastructure of Zn induced iron deficiency in mesophyll chloroplasts of spinach and tomato. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 109:164–168Google Scholar
- Saeidnia S, Gohari AR (2012) Importance of Brassica napus as a medicinal food plant. J Med Plants Res 6(14):2700–2703Google Scholar
- Taiz L, Zeiger E (2010) Plant physiology. Sinauer Associates, SunderlandGoogle Scholar