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Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 22, Issue 14, pp 10733–10743 | Cite as

Long-term exposure of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) to ZnO nanoparticles: anatomical and ultrastructural responses

  • Seyed Mousa Mousavi KouhiEmail author
  • Mehrdad Lahouti
  • Ali Ganjeali
  • Mohammad H. Entezari
Research Article

Abstract

Rapid development of nanotechnology in recent years has raised concerns about nanoparticle (NPs) release into the environment and its adverse effects on living organisms. The present study is the first comprehensive report on the anatomical and ultrastructural changes of a variety of cells after long-term exposure of plant to NPs or bulk material particles (BPs). Light and electron microscopy revealed some anatomical and ultrastructural modifications of the different types of cell in the root and leaf, induced by both types of treatment. Zinc oxide (ZnO) BPs-induced modifications were surprisingly more than those induced by ZnO NPs. The modifications induced by ZnO BPs or ZnO NPs were almost similar to those induced by excess Zn. Zn content of the root and leaf of both ZnO NPs- and ZnO BPs-treated plants was severely increased, where the increase was greater in the plants treated with ZnO BPs. Overall, these results indicate that the modifications induced by ZnO particles can be attributed, at least partly, to the Zn2+ dissolution by ZnO particles rather than their absorption by root and their subsequent effects.

Keywords

Environmental pollution Nanoparticle Phytotoxicity Zinc oxide 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Faculty of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, under Grant Number 24427. The authors thank Dr. Azizi for procuring the standard seeds of B. napus. The authors are grateful to Mrs Fatemeh Naseri and Mrs Roksana Pesian for preparing the samples for TEM and taking TEM micrographs, respectively.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seyed Mousa Mousavi Kouhi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mehrdad Lahouti
    • 1
  • Ali Ganjeali
    • 1
  • Mohammad H. Entezari
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biology, Faculty of SciencesFerdowsi University of MashhadMashhadIran
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of SciencesFerdowsi University of MashhadMashhadIran

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