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Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 22, Issue 17, pp 13194–13203 | Cite as

Sex ratio of White Stork Ciconia ciconia in different environments of Poland

  • Piotr KamińskiEmail author
  • Ewa Grochowska
  • Sławomir Mroczkowski
  • Leszek Jerzak
  • Mariusz Kasprzak
  • Beata Koim-Puchowska
  • Alina Woźniak
  • Olaf Ciebiera
  • Damian Markulak
Research Article

Abstract

The aim of this study was to analyze the variation in sex ratio of White Stork Ciconia ciconia chicks from differentiated Poland environments. We took under a consideration the impact of Cd and Pb for establish differences among sex ratio in chicks. We also study multiplex PCR employment for establish gender considerations. We collected blood samples via venipuncture of brachial vein of chicks during 2006–2008 breeding seasons at the Odra meadows (SW-Poland; control), which were compared with those from suburbs (SW-Poland), and from copper smelter (S-Poland; polluted) and from swamps near Baltic Sea. We found differences among sex ratio in White Stork chicks from types of environment. Male participation in sex structure is importantly higher in each type of environment excluded suburban areas. Differences in White Stork sex ratio according to the degree of environmental degradation expressed by Cd and Pb and sex-environment-metal interactions testify about the impact of these metals upon sex ratios in storks. Simultaneously, as a result of multiplex PCR, 18S ribosome gene, which served as internal control of PCR, was amplified in male and female storks. It means that it is possible to use primers designed for chicken in order to replicate this fragment of genome in White Stork. Moreover, the use of Oriental White Stork Ciconia boyciana W- chromosome specific primers makes it possible to determine the sex of C. ciconia chicks. Many factors make sex ratio of White Stork changes in subsequent breeding seasons, which depend significantly on specific environmental parameters that shape individual detailed defense mechanisms.

Keywords

White Stork Ciconia ciconia Sex ratio Sex determination Environmental stress Pb and Cd impact Poland 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are deeply thankful to Professor Joerg Boehner (Berlin Univ.) for the improved English text of the MS.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Piotr Kamiński
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ewa Grochowska
    • 3
  • Sławomir Mroczkowski
    • 3
  • Leszek Jerzak
    • 4
  • Mariusz Kasprzak
    • 5
  • Beata Koim-Puchowska
    • 1
  • Alina Woźniak
    • 6
  • Olaf Ciebiera
    • 4
  • Damian Markulak
    • 4
  1. 1.Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Department of Ecology and Environmental ProtectionNicolaus Copernicus University in ToruńBydgoszczPoland
  2. 2.Faculty of Biological Sciences, Department of BiotechnologyUniversity of Zielona GóraZielona GóraPoland
  3. 3.Department of Genetics and General Animal BreedingUniversity of Technology and Life SciencesBydgoszczPoland
  4. 4.Faculty of Biological Sciences, Department of Nature ProtectionUniversity of Zielona GóraZielona GóraPoland
  5. 5.Faculty of Biological Sciences, Department of ZoologyUniversity of Zielona GóraZielona GóraPoland
  6. 6.Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Department of Medical BiologyNicolaus Copernicus University in ToruńBydgoszczPoland

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