Advertisement

Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Plant-assisted rhizoremediation of decabromodiphenyl ether for e-waste recycling area soil of Taizhou, China

Abstract

To develop an effective phytoremediation approach to purify soils polluted by decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) in e-waste recycling area, pot experiments were conducted through greenhouse growth of seven plant species in BDE-209-polluted soils. The hygrocolous rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars (XiuS and HuangHZ) and the xerophyte ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) were found to be as the most effective functional plants for facilitating BDE-209 dissipation, with the removal of 52.9, 41.9, and 38.7 % in field-contaminated soils (collected directly from field, with an average pollution concentration of 394.6 μg BDE-209 kg−1 soil), as well as 21.7, 27.6, and 28.1 % in freshly spiked soils (an average pollution concentration of 4413.57 μg BDE-209 kg−1 soil, with additional BDE-209 added to field-contaminated soils), respectively. Changes in soil phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles revealed that different selective enrichments of functional microbial groups (e.g., arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and gram-positive bacteria) were induced due to plant growth under contrasting water management (flooded-drained sequentially, flooded only, and drained only, respectively). The abundance of available electron donors and acceptors and the activities of soil oxido-reductases were also correspondingly modified, with the activity of catalase, and the content of NO3 and Fe3+ increased generally toward most of the xerophyte treatments, while the activity of dehydrogenase and the content of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and NH4 + increased toward the hygrophyte treatments. This differentiated dissipation of BDE-209 in soils as function of plant species, pollution doses and time, and water-dependent redox condition. This study illustrates a possibility of phytoremediation for BDE-209-polluted soils by successive cultivation of rice followed by ryegrass coupling with suitable water management, possibly through dissipation pathway of microbial reductive debromination and subsequent aerobic oxidative cleavage of benzene ring.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

References

  1. Adriaens P, Chang P, Barkovskii A (1996) Dechlorination of PCDD/F by organic and inorganic electron transfer molecules in reduced environments. Chemosphere 32:433–441

  2. Asturias JA, Timmis KN (1993) Three different 2, 3-dihydroxybiphenyl-1, 2-dioxygenase genes in the gram-positive polychlorobiphenyl-degrading bacterium Rhodococcus globerulus P6. J Bacteriol 175:4631–4640

  3. Campanella BF, Bock C, Schröder P (2002) Phytoremediation to increase the degradation of PCBs and PCDD/Fs. Environ Sci Pollut Res 9:73–85

  4. Chen Y, Lin CJ, Lan H, Fu S, Zhan H (2010) Changes in pentachlorophenol (PCP) metabolism and physicochemical characteristics by granules responding to different oxygen availability. Environ Progr Sustain Energy 29:307–312

  5. D'Angelo EM, Reddy KR (2000) Aerobic and anaerobic transformations of pentachlorophenol in wetland soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 64:933–943

  6. De Wit CA (2002) An overview of brominated flame retardants in the environment. Chemosphere 46:583–624

  7. Ding N, Guo HC, Hayat T, Wu YP, Xu JM (2009) Microbial community structure changes during Aroclor 1242 degradation in the rhizosphere of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.). FEMS Microbiol Ecol 70:305–314

  8. Dong LL, Hao ZP, Zuo YM, Li XL, Wang Q, Christie P (2012) Effect of garlic bulb aqueous extract on cucumber seedlings, soil microbial counts, and enzyme activities. Soil Sci Plant Anal 43:2888–2896

  9. Fu QL, Liu C, Ding NF, Lin YC, Guo B, Luo JF, Wang HL (2012) Soil microbial communities and enzyme activities in a reclaimed coastal soil chromosequence under rice-barley cropping. J Soils Sediment 13:1134–1144

  10. Gandhi N, Bhavsar SP, Gewurtz SB, Tomy GT (2011) Can biotransformation of BDE-209 in lake trout cause bioaccumulation of more toxic, lower-brominated PBDEs (BDE-47,-99) over the long term? Environ Int 37(1):170–177

  11. García-Orenes F, Guerrero C, Roldán A, Mataix-Solera J, Cerdà A, Campoy M, Bárcenas G, Caravaca F (2010) Soil microbial biomass and activity under different agricultural management systems in a semiarid Mediterranean agroecosystem. Soil Tillage Res 109(2):110–115

  12. Gerecke AC, Hartmann PC, Heeb NV, Kohler HP, Giger W, Schmid P, Zennegg M, Kohler M (2005) Anaerobic degradation of decabromodiphenyl ether. Environ Sci Technol 39:1078–1083

  13. Hassanin A, Breivik K, Meijer SN, Steinnes E, Thomas GO, Jones KC (2004) PBDEs in European background soils: levels and factors controlling their distribution. Environ Sci Technol 38:738–745

  14. Hayat T, Ding N, Ma B, He Y, Shi JC, Xu JM (2011) Dissipation of pentachlorophenol in the aerobic-anaerobic interfaces established by the rhizosphere of rice (Oryza sativa L.) root. J Environ Qual 40:1722–1729

  15. He Y, Xu JM, Tang CX, Wu YP (2005) Facilitation of pentachlorophenol degradation in the rhizosphere of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Soil Biol Biochem 37:2017–2024

  16. He J, Robrock KR, Alvarez-Cohen L (2006) Microbial reductive debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Environ Sci Technol 40:4429–4434

  17. He Y, Xu JM, Ma ZH, Wang HZ, Wu YP (2007) Profiling of PLFA: implications for nonlinear spatial gradient of PCP degradation in the vicinity of Lolium perenne L. roots. Soil Biol Biochem 39:1121–1129

  18. He Y, Xu JM, Lv XF, Ma ZH, Wu JJ, Shi JC (2009) Does the depletion of pentachlorophenol in root–soil interface follow a simple linear dependence on the distance to root surfaces? Soil Biol Biochem 41(9):1807–1813

  19. He Y, Ding N, Shi JC, Wu M, Liao H, Xu JM (2013) Profiling of microbial PLFAs: implications for interspecific interactions due to intercropping which increase phosphorus uptake in phosphorus limited acidic soils. Soil Biol Biochem 57:625–634

  20. Huang HL, Zhang SZ, Christie P, Wang S, Xie M (2010) Behavior of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) in the soil-plant system: uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and dissipation in soil. Environ Sci Technol 44:663–667

  21. Huang HL, Zhang SZ, Christie P (2011) Plant uptake and dissipation of PBDEs in the soils of electronic waste recycling sites. Environ Pollut 159:238–243

  22. Huang LF, Zhuo JF, Guo WD, Spencer RG, Zhang ZY, Xu J (2013) Tracing organic matter removal in polluted coastal waters via floating bed phytoremediation. Mar Pollut Bull 71:74–82

  23. Kotik M, Davidová A, Voříšková J, Baldrian P (2013) Bacterial communities in tetrachloroethene-polluted groundwaters: a case study. Sci Total Environ 454–455:517–527

  24. Leung AOW, Luksemburg WJ, Wong AS (2007) Spatial distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in soil and combusted residue at Guiyu, an electronic waste recycling site in southeast China. Environ Sci Technol 41:2730–2737

  25. Liu X, Wang Z, Zhang X, Wang J, Xu G, Cao Z, Zhong C, Su P (2011) Degradation of diesel-originated pollutants in wetlands by Scirpus triqueter and microorganisms. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 74:1967–1972

  26. Ma B, He Y, Xu JM, Rengel Z (2010) Dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the rhizosphere: synthesis through meta-analysis. Environ Pollut 158:855–861

  27. McKinley VL, Peacock AD, White DC (2005) Microbial community PLFA and PHB responses to ecosystem restoration in tallgrass prairie soils. Soil Biol Biochem 37:1946–1958

  28. Mueller KE, Mueller-Spitz SR, Henry HF, Vonderheide AP, Soman RS, Kinkle BK, Shann JR (2006) Fate of pentabrominated diphenyl ethers in soil: abiotic sorption, plant uptake, and the impact of interspecific plant interactions. Environ Sci Technol 40:6662–6667

  29. Payne RB, May HD, Sowers KR (2011) Enhanced reductive dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyl impacted sediment by bioaugmentation with a dehalorespiring bacterium. Environ Sci Technol 45:8772–8779

  30. Qin H, Brookes PC, Xu J (2014) Cucurbita spp. and Cucumis sativus enhance the dissipation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners by stimulating soil microbial community development. Environ Pollut 184:306–312

  31. Rayne S, Ikonomou MG, Whale MD (2003) Anaerobic microbial and photochemical degradation of 4, 4′-dibromodiphenyl ether. Water Res 37:551–560

  32. Robrock KR, Korytár P, Alvarez-Cohen L (2008) Pathways for the anaerobic microbial debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Environ Sci Technol 42:2845–2852

  33. Romeh AA, Hendawi MY (2013) Chlorpyrifos insecticide uptake by plantain from polluted water and soil. Environ Chem Lett 11:163–170

  34. Shiyin L, Lixiao N, Panying P, Cheng S, Liansheng W (2004) Effects of pesticides and their hydrolysates on catalase activity in soil. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 73:600–606

  35. Stepniewska Z, Wolińska A, Ziomek J (2009) Response of soil catalase activity to chromium contamination. J Environ Sci 21:1142–1147

  36. Tang ZW, Huang QF, Cheng JL, Yang YF, Yang J, Guo W, Nie ZQ, Zeng N, Jin L (2014) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soils, sediments, and human hair in a plastic waste recycling area: a neglected heavily polluted area. Environ Sci Technol 48(3):1508–1516

  37. Wolińska A, Stępniewska Z (2012) Dehydrogenase activity in the soil environment. Biochem Genet Mol Biol 14:183–210

  38. Wu F, Yu X, Wu S, Wong M (2014) Effects of Inoculation of PAH-degrading bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on responses of ryegrass to phenanthrene and pyrene. Int J Phytoremediat 16:109–122

  39. Xu DF, Xu JM, He Y, Huang PM (2009) Effect of iron plaque formation on phosphorus accumulation and availability in the rhizosphere of wetland plants. Water Air Soil Pollut 200:79–87

  40. Xu Y, He Y, Feng XL, Liang LY, Xu JM, Brookes PC, Wu JJ (2014) Enhanced abiotic and biotic contributions to dechlorination of pentachlorophenol during Fe(III) reduction by an iron-reducing bacterium Clostridium beijerinckii Z. Sci Total Environ 473:215–223

  41. Zhang H, Ziv-El M, Rittmann BE, Krajmalnik-Brown R (2010) Effect of dechlorination and sulfate reduction on the microbial community structure in denitrifying membrane-biofilm reactors. Environ Sci Technol 44:5159–5164

  42. Zhou J, Xia F, Liu XM, He Y, Xu JM, Brookes PC (2014) Effects of nitrogen fertilizer on the acidification of two typical acid soils in South China. J Soils Sediments 14:415–422

Download references

Acknowledgments

This research was financially supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863 Program, No. 2012AA06A203), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41322006, 41090284), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, and Zhejiang University K.P. Chao’s High Technology Development Foundation.

Author information

Correspondence to Yan He or Jianming Xu.

Additional information

Responsible editor: Leif Kronberg

Electronic supplementary material

Details for the design of rhizobag, preparation of the freshly BDE-209 spiked soil, and analytical methods of soil PLFAs, DOC, and other biochemical indexes; Table S1 (The 22 identified phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and their attributive microbial species as well as their correlations with BDE-209 percent removal). (DOC 164 kb)

ESM 1

(DOC 164 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

He, Y., Li, X., Shen, X. et al. Plant-assisted rhizoremediation of decabromodiphenyl ether for e-waste recycling area soil of Taizhou, China. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22, 9976–9988 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-4179-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209)
  • Rhizosphere
  • Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs)
  • Soil redox status
  • E-waste recycling area