Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 22, Issue 11, pp 8683–8692 | Cite as

EPR and LC-MS studies on the mechanism of industrial dye decolorization by versatile peroxidase from Bjerkandera adusta

  • Maria Camilla Baratto
  • Karla Juarez-Moreno
  • Rebecca Pogni
  • Riccardo Basosi
  • Rafael Vazquez-DuhaltEmail author
Research Article


The mechanisms of industrial dye transformation by versatile peroxidase were elucidated. Purified versatile peroxidase from Bjerkandera adusta was able to decolorize different classes of dyes including azo and phthalocyanines, but unable to transform any of the anthraquinones tested. Kinetic constants for selected dyes were determined and the transformation products were analyzed by EPR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The EPR and MS analyses of the enzymatic decolorization products showed the cleavage of the azo bond in azo dyes and the total disruption of the phthalocyaninic ring in phthalocyanine dyes. The EPR analysis on two copper-containing dyes, reactive violet 5 (azo) and reactive blue 72 (phthalocyanine), showed that the transformation can or not break the metal-ion coordination bond according the dye nature. The role of the catalytic Trp172 in the dye transformation by a long-range electron transfer pathway was confirmed and the oxidation mechanisms are proposed and discussed.


Azo dyes Bjerkandera adusta Enzymatic decolorization Phthalocyanines dyes Versatile peroxidase 



We thank Rosa Roman for her technical assistance. This project was funded by the National Council of Science and Technology of Mexico (CONACYT) and the Italian MIUR PRIN 2009 STNWX3 and the Italian CSGI Consortium.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Camilla Baratto
    • 1
  • Karla Juarez-Moreno
    • 2
  • Rebecca Pogni
    • 1
  • Riccardo Basosi
    • 1
  • Rafael Vazquez-Duhalt
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry, and PharmacyUniversity of SienaSienaItaly
  2. 2.Center for Nanosciences and Nanotechnology-UNAMEnsenadaMexico

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