Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 22, Issue 7, pp 4893–4906 | Cite as

A survey of smart water quality monitoring system

  • Jianhua Dong
  • Guoyin Wang
  • Huyong Yan
  • Ji Xu
  • Xuerui ZhangEmail author
Review Article

Abstract

The smart water quality monitoring, regarded as the future water quality monitoring technology, catalyzes progress in the capabilities of data collection, communication, data analysis, and early warning. In this article, we survey the literature till 2014 on the enabling technologies for the Smart Water Quality Monitoring System. We explore three major subsystems, namely the data collection subsystem, the data transmission subsystem, and the data management subsystem from the view of data acquiring, data transmission, and data analysis. Specifically, for the data collection subsystem, we explore selection of water quality parameters, existing technology of online water quality monitoring, identification of the locations of sampling stations, and determination of the sampling frequencies. For the data transmission system, we explore data transmission network architecture and data communication management. For the data management subsystem, we explore water quality analysis and prediction, water quality evaluation, and water quality data storage. We also propose possible challenges and future directions for each subsystem.

Keywords

Smart water quality monitoring system Data collection Data transmission Data management Early warning 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work has been supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant (No. 61272060), National Science and Technology Major Project (No. 2014ZX07104-006), the Hundred Talents Program of CAS (No. Y21Z110A10).

References

  1. ADES (2008) ADES groundwater national portal.http://www.ades.eaufrance.fr. Cited jun 2014
  2. Adomavicius G, Tuzhilin A (2001) Expert-driven validation of rule-based user models in personalization applications. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery 5(1–2):33–58Google Scholar
  3. Aitken DJ, Gooding CP (2010) U.S. Patent No. 7,852,855. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  4. Allen M, Preis A, Iqbal M, Whittle AJ (2012) Case study: a smart water grid in Singapore. Water Pract Technol 7(4)Google Scholar
  5. Banna MH, Imran S, Francisque A, Najjaran H, Sadiq R, Rodriguez M, Hoorfar M (2013) Online drinking water quality monitoring: review on available and emerging technologies. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, (just-accepted)Google Scholar
  6. Beckers CV, Chamberlain SG, Grimsrud GP (1972) Quantitative methods for preliminary design of water quality surveillance systems. Socioeconomic Environmental Studies Series Report No. EPA-R5-72-001. US EPA, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  7. Box GE, Pierce DA (1970) Distribution of residual autocorrelations in autoregressive-integrated moving average time series models. J Am Stat Assoc 65(332):1509–1526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bughin J, Chui M, Manyika J (2010) Clouds, big data, and smart assets: ten tech-enabled business trends to watch. McKinsey Q 56(1):75–86Google Scholar
  9. Canter LW (1985) River water quality monitoring. Lewis Publishers, Inc., ChelseaGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen Q, Zhang Y, Hallikainen M (2007) Water quality monitoring using remote sensing in support of the EU water framework directive (WFD): a case study in the gulf of Finland. Environ Monit Assess 124(1–3):157–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen Y, Shu J, Zhang S, Liu L, Sun L (2009) Data fusion in wireless sensor networks. In Electronic Commerce and Security, 2009. ISECS'09. Second International Symposium on (Vol. 2, pp. 504-509). IEEEGoogle Scholar
  12. Cheng S (2003) Heavy metal pollution in China: origin, pattern and control. Environ Sci Pollut Res 10(3):192–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chilundo M, Kelderman P (2008) Design of a water quality monitoring network for the Limpopo river basin in Mozambique. Phys Chem Earth Parts A/B/C 33(8):655–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2014) http://www.chinacdc.cn/jkzt/hjws/hjws/201103/t20110314_28158.htm. Acessed Dec 2014
  15. Deininger RA, Males RM (2001) Design of early warning and predictive source-water monitoring systems. american water works associationGoogle Scholar
  16. Deng JL (2002) The foundation of grey theory. Huazhong University of Science and Technology Press, Wuhan, pp 22–26, 1Google Scholar
  17. Department of Environment and Conservation (2011) Real-time water quality monitoring program. http://www.env.gov.nl.ca/env/waterres/rti/rtwq/index.html. Accessed Dec, 2014
  18. Drake CH (1985) On-line water quality monitoring. In 5. International Environment and Safety Conference, London(UK), 16-19 Sep 1985 (Vol. 1985)Google Scholar
  19. Duan Q, Ajami NK, Gao X, Sorooshian S (2007) Multi-model ensemble hydrologic prediction using Bayesian model averaging. Adv Water Resour 30(5):1371–1386.1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dubois E, Fasson J, Donny C, Chaput E (2010) Enhancing TCP based communications in mobile satellite scenarios: TCP peps issues and solutions. In advanced satellite multimedia systems conference (asma) and the 11th signal processing for space communications workshop (spsc), 2010 5th (pp. 476-483). IEEEGoogle Scholar
  21. Dzemydienė D, Maskeliūnas S, Jacobsen K (2008) Sustainable management of water resources based on web services and distributed data warehouses. Technol Econ Dev Econ 14(1):38–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Edwards AMC, Thornes JB (1973) Annual cycle in river water quality: a time series approach. Water resources research, 9(5), 1286-1295Google Scholar
  23. EPA (2014) United States Environmental Protection Agency http://water.epa.gov/type/watersheds/monitoring/monintr.cfm. Accessed Jun 2014
  24. HECWFS/Huron to Erie Connecting Waterways Forecasting System (2007) http://glos.us/data-tools/huron-erie-connecting-waterways-forecasting-system. Acessed Jun 2014 200
  25. Fang X, Misra S, Xue G, Yang D (2012) Smart grid-the new and improved power grid: a survey. Commun Surv Tutorials, IEEE 14(4):944–980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fitzpatrick C (2010). Aquas Smart Water Solutions bring range to the UKGoogle Scholar
  27. Fraternali P, Castelletti A, Soncini-Sessa R, Vaca Ruiz C, Rizzoli AE (2012) Putting humans in the loop: social computing for water resources management. Environ Model Softw 37:68–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Frey M, Sullivan L (2004) Practical Application of Online Monitoring. Awwa Research FoundationGoogle Scholar
  29. Gao J, Xiao Y, Liu J, Liang W, Chen CL (2012) A survey of communication/networking in smart grids. Futur Gener Comput Syst 28(2):391–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Glasgow HB, Burkholder JM, Reed RE, Lewitus AJ, Kleinman JE (2004) Real-time remote monitoring of water quality: a review of current applications, and advancements in sensor, telemetry, and computing technologies. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 300(1):409–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. GLATOS/Great Lakes Acoustic Telemetry Observation System (2009)Google Scholar
  32. GLOS (2010) http://glos.us/. Acessed Jun 2014
  33. Gómez JAD, Alonso CA, García AA (2011) Remote sensing as a tool for monitoring water quality parameters for Mediterranean Lakes of European Union water framework directive (WFD) and as a system of surveillance of cyanobacterial harmful algae blooms (SCyanoHABs). Environ Monit Assess 181(1–4):317–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. BC Government (2006) A compendium of working water quality guidelines for British Columbia. http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/wat/wq/BCguidelines/working.html#ref. Accessed Jun 2014
  35. Gray NF (2008) Drinking water quality. Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  36. Gu L, Jia D, Vicaire P, Yan T, Luo L, Tirumala A, Krogh BH (2005) Lightweight detection and classification for wireless sensor networks in realistic environments. In Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on Embedded networked sensor systems (pp. 205-217). ACMGoogle Scholar
  37. Gungor VC, Lambert FC (2006) A survey on communication networks for electric system automation. Comput Netw 50(7):877–897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Harmancioglu NB, Fistikoglu O, Ozkul SD, Singh VP, Alpaslan MN (1999) Water quality monitoring network design. Kluwer Academic Publishers, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hasan R, Raghav A, Mahmood S, Hasan MA (2011) Artificial Intelligence in River Quality Assessment. In Information Management, Innovation Management and Industrial Engineering (ICIII), 2011 International Conference on (Vol. 1, pp. 491-495). IEEEGoogle Scholar
  40. Hayes B (2008) Cloud computing. Commun ACM 51(7):9–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. He D, Zhang LX (2012) The water quality monitoring system based on WSN. In Consumer electronics, communications and networks (CECNet), 2012 2nd International Conference on (pp. 3661-3664). IEEEGoogle Scholar
  42. Health Canada (2009) Guidelines for Canadian drinking water quality: Chlorine. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/alt_formats/hecs-sesc/pdf/pubs/water-eau/chlorine-chlore/tech_doc_chlor-eng.pdf. Accessed Jun 2014
  43. Hering D, Borja A, Carstensen J, Carvalho L, Elliott M, Feld CK, de Bund WV (2010) The european water framework directive at the age of 10: a critical review of the achievements with recommendations for the future. Sci Total Environ 408(19):4007–4019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Horton RE (1945) Erosional development of streams. Geol Soc Am Bull 56:281–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hu Y, Li VO (2001) Satellite-based internet: a tutorial. IEEE Commun Mag 39(3):154–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Huang GH, Chang NB (2003) The perspectives of environmental informatics and systems analysis. J Environ Inform 1(1):1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ioos (2008) http://www.ioos.noaa.gov/. Accessed Jun 2014
  48. IOOS (2008) http://www.ioos.noaa.gov/. Accessed Jun 2014
  49. Jiao ZP, Li W, Liu CF, Tian Y (2011) The database design of estuary environmental impact assessment system based on 3S. Procedia Environ Sci 10:2213–2217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jin C, De-lin L, Fen-xiang M (2009) An improved ID3 decision tree algorithm. In computer science & education, 2009. ICCSE'09. 4th International conference on (pp. 127-130). IEEE.1Google Scholar
  51. Jiong L, Zhigang C, Junaid KM (2009) TP-satellite: a new transport protocol for satellite IP networks. Aerosp ElectronSyst, IEEE Trans 45(2):502–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Juan H, Xingqiao L, Liqiang C (2012) Design of a wireless water environment monitoring system based on ZigBee in aquaculture. Fish Modernization 39(1):34–39Google Scholar
  53. Karamouz M, Nokhandan AK, Kerachian R, Maksimovic Č (2009) Design of on-line river water quality monitoring systems using the entropy theory: a case study. Environ Monit Assess 155(1–4):63–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kennish MJ, Fertig B, Lathrop RG (2012) Assessment of nutrient loading and eutrophication in Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor, New Jersey in support of nutrient management planning. Rutgers UniversityGoogle Scholar
  55. Krishna AK, Satyanarayanan M, Govil PK (2009) Assessment of heavy metal pollution in water using multivariate statistical techniques in an industrial area: a case study from Patancheru, Medak District, Andhra Pradesh, India. J Hazard Mater 167(1):366–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Laanen ML (2007) Yellow matters: improving the remote sensing of coloured dissolved organic matter in inland freshwatersGoogle Scholar
  57. Le Dinh T, Hu W, Sikka P, Corke P, Overs L, Brosnan S (2007) Design and deployment of a remote robust sensor network: experiences from an outdoor water quality monitoring network. In local computer networks, 2007. LCN 2007. 32nd IEEE Conference on (pp. 799-806). IEEEGoogle Scholar
  58. Leone A, Chen D (2007) Implementation of an object oriented data model in an information system for water catchment management: java JDO and Db4o object database. Environ Model Softw 22(12):1805–1810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Liu J, Liu J, Reich J, Cheung P, Zhao F (2003) Distributed group management for track initiation and maintenance in target localization applications. In Information Processing in Sensor Networks (pp. 113-128). Springer Berlin HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  60. Loftis J, Ward R (1980) Cost-effective selection of sampling frequencies for regulatory water quality monitoring. Environ Int 3:297–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Manache G, Melching CS (2008) Identification of reliable regression-and correlation-based sensitivity measures for importance ranking of water-quality model parameters. Environ Model Softw 23(5):549–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Marce R, Rodríguez‐Arias MA, García JC, Armengol JOAN (2010) El Niño southern oscillation and climate trends impact reservoir water quality. Glob Chang Biol 16(10):2857–2865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Meng T, Wu C, Shang B, Gao C, Zhang Y (2011) Design of point to multi-point wireless communication system based on ZigBee. In wireless communications, networking and mobile computing (WiCOM), 2011 7th International Conference on (pp. 1-4). IEEEGoogle Scholar
  64. Mutchek M (2013) Moving Towards Sustainable and Resilient Smart Water Grids: Networked Sensing and Control Devices in the Urban Water System. Arizona State UniversityGoogle Scholar
  65. Naddeo V, Zarra T, Belgirno V (2007) Optimization of sampling frequency for river water quality assessment according to Italian implementation of EU water framework directive. Environ Sci Policy 10:243–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Naddeo V, Scannapieco D, Zarra T, Belgiorno V (2013) River water quality assessment: implementation of non-parametric test for sampling frequency optimization. Land Use Policy 30:197–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Najah A, El-Shafie A, Karim OA, Jaafar O, El-Shafie AH (2011) An application of different artificial intelligences techniques for water quality prediction. Int J Phys Sci 6(22):5298–5308Google Scholar
  68. Nasirudin MA, Za'bah UN, Sidek O (2011) Fresh water real-time monitoring system based on wireless sensor network and GSM. In Open Systems (ICOS), 2011 I.E. Conference on (pp. 354-357). IEEEGoogle Scholar
  69. NAWQA/National Water-Quality Assessment Program (2013) http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2013/1160/pdf/OF13-1160.pdf. Acessed Jun 2014
  70. Neamtu M, Ciumasu IM, Costica N, Costica M, Bobu M, Nicoara MN, De Alencastro LF (2009) Chemical, biological, and ecotoxicological assessment of pesticides and persistent organic pollutants in the Bahlui River, Romania. Environ Sci Pollut Res 16(1):76–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Nemerow NL (1974) Scientific stream pollution analysis. McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  72. NOAA (2009) http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/. Accessed Jun 2014
  73. Papoutsa C, Hadjimitsis DG, Themistocleous K, PerdikouP, Retalis A, Toulios L (2010) Smart monitoring of water quality in Asprokremmos Dam in Paphos, Cyprus using satellite remote sensing and wireless sensor platform. In Proc. SPIE (Vol. 7831, p. 78310Q)Google Scholar
  74. Payment P, Waite M, Dufour A (2003) Introducing parameters for the assessment of drinking water quality. Assessing microbial safety of drinking water, 47Google Scholar
  75. Ramadan RA (2012) Towards Smart Egypt—The Role of Large Scale WSNs. In Advanced Machine Learning Technologies and Applications (pp. 203-212). Springer Berlin HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  76. Ritchie JC, Zimba PV, Everitt JH (2003) Remote sensing techniques to assess water quality. Photogramm Eng Remote Sens 69(6):695–704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sanders T, Ward R, Loftis J, Steele T, Adrian D, Yevjevich V (1983) Design of networks for monitoring water quality. Water Resources Publications, ColoradoGoogle Scholar
  78. Sharp WE (1971) A topologically optimum water-sampling plan for rivers or streams. Water Resour Res 7:1641–1646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Shin PS, Song YR, Choi YJ, Park YS (2009) Seoul (Korea) Online water quality monitoring of drinking water. In world environmental and water resources congress 2009@ sGreat Rivers (pp. 103-111) ASCEGoogle Scholar
  80. Storey MV, van der Gaag B, Burns BP (2011) Advances in on-line drinking water quality monitoring and early warning systems. Water Res 45(2):741–747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Strobl RO, Robillard PD (2008) Network design for water quality monitoring of surface freshwaters: a review. J Environ Manag 87(4):639–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Telci IT, Nam K, Guan J, Aral MM (2009) Optimal water quality monitoring network design for river systems. J Environ Manag 90(10):2987–2998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. The Office of Waterworks Seoul (2014) http://arisu.seoul.go.kr. Accessed Dec, 2014
  84. Thompson K, Kadiyala R (2014) Protecting water quality and public health using a smart grid. Procedia Eng 70:1649–1658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Trescott A, Park MH (2013) Remote sensing models using Landsat satellite data to monitor algal blooms in Lake Champlain. Water Sci Technol 67(5):1113–1120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Science and Ecosystem Support Division (2013) http://www.epa.gov/region4/sesd/fbqstp/Wastewater-Sampling.pdf. Acessed Dec 2014
  87. UN/ECE (2000) Guidelines on Monitoring and Assessment of Transboundary Rivers. Task Force on Monitoring and Assessment, RIZAGoogle Scholar
  88. US Geological Survey (USGS) (2000) Ground water atlas of the Unites States. United States Geological Survey, Reston, VA.http://pubs.usgs.gov/ha/ha730/index.html. Cited Jun 2014
  89. USEPA (2005) Water Sentinel online water quality monitoring as an indicator of drinking water contamination, EPA 817-D-05-002. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Water Security Division, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  90. USEPA (2009b) National primary drinking water regulations. http://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/upload/mcl-2.pdf. Accessed Jun 2014
  91. USGS (2010) http://nhd.usgs.gov/. Accessed Jun 2014
  92. USGS (2011) http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/. Accessed Jun 2014
  93. USGS (2014) http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/qw. Acessed Jun 2014
  94. Wang Z, Wang Q, Hao X (2009) The design of the remote water quality monitoring system based on WSN. In wireless communications, networking and mobile computing, 2009. WiCom'09. 5th international conference on (pp. 1-4). IEEEGoogle Scholar
  95. Ward RC (1973) Data acquisition systems in water quality management. Socioeconomic Environmental Series Studies Report No. EPA-R5-73-014. US EPA, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  96. WHO (2003) pH in Drinking-water: Background document for development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality. http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/chemicals/en/ph.pdf. Accessed Jun 2014
  97. World Meteorological Organization (1994) Guide to Hydrological Practice. WMO-No. 168, WMO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  98. Xie Z, Lou I, Ung WK, Mok KM (2012) Freshwater algal bloom prediction by support vector machine in Macau storage reservoirs. Mathematical problems in engineering, 2012Google Scholar
  99. Xu L, Jiang T, Xie J, Zheng S (2010) Red tide algae classification using SVM-SNP and semi-supervised FCM. In education technology and computer (ICETC), 2010 2nd International Conference on(Vol. 1, pp. V1-389). IEEEGoogle Scholar
  100. Yoon S, Ye W, Heidemann J, Littlefield B, Shahabi C (2011) SWATS: wireless sensor networks for steamflood and waterflood pipeline monitoring. Netw, IEEE 25(1):50–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Zhao X, Qi Q, Zhao G, Zheng J (2012) Establishment and applications of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model for city drinking water source quality assessment. Keji Daobao/ Science & Technology Review 30(11):53–56Google Scholar
  102. Zhu X, Li D, He D, Wang J, Ma D, Li F (2010) A remote wireless system for water quality online monitoring in intensive fish culture. Comput Electron Agric 71:S3–S9CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jianhua Dong
    • 1
  • Guoyin Wang
    • 1
  • Huyong Yan
    • 1
  • Ji Xu
    • 2
  • Xuerui Zhang
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Electronic Information & Technology, Chongqing Institutes of Green and Intelligent TechnologyChinese Academy of SciencesChongqingChina
  2. 2.School of Information Science and TechnologySouthwest Jiaotong UniversityChengduChina

Personalised recommendations