Leaching of lead from new unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) pipes into drinking water
- 408 Downloads
Unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) pipes have been used in the premise plumbing system due to their high strength, long-term durability, and low cost. uPVC pipes, however, may contain lead due to the use of lead compounds as the stabilizer during the manufacturing process. The release of lead from three locally purchased uPVC pipes was investigated in this study. The effects of various water quality parameters including pH value, temperature, and type of disinfectant on the rate of lead release were examined. The elemental mapping obtained using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) confirmed the presence of lead on the inner surfaces of the uPVC pipes and their surface lead weight percentages were determined. The leachable lead concentration for each pipe was determined using high strength acidic EDTA solutions (pH 4, EDTA = 100 mg/L). Lead leaching experiments using tap water and reconstituted tape water under static conditions showed that the rate of lead release increased with the decreasing pH value and increasing temperature. In the presence of monochloramine, lead release was faster than that in the presence of free chlorine.
KeywordsuPVC pipe Lead Distribution system
The authors would like to thank financial support from National University of Singapore (R-302-000-049-112) and National Taiwan University (NTU-CDP-103R7877).
- Bellinger D, Sloman J, Leviton A, Rabinowitz M, Needleman HL, Waternaux C (1991) Low level lead exposure and children’s cognitive function in the preschool years. Pediatrics 87:219–227Google Scholar
- Edwards M, Dudi A (2004) Role of chlorine and chloramine in corrosion of lead-bearing plumbing materials. J Am Water Works Assoc 96:69–81Google Scholar
- Lytle DA, Schock MR (2005) Formation of Pb(IV) oxides in chlorinated water. J Am Water Works Assoc 97:102–114Google Scholar
- Papanikolaou NC, Hatzidaki EG, Belivanis S, Tzanakakis GN, Tsatsakis AM (2005) Lead toxicity update. A brief review. Med Sci Monit 11:RA329–RA336Google Scholar
- Sadiq M, Zaidi TH, AlMuhanna H, Mian AA (1997) Effect of distribution network pipe material on drinking water quality. J Environ Sci Health Part A-Toxic/Hazard Subst Environ Eng 32:445–454Google Scholar
- Stumm W, Morgan JJ (1996) Aquatic chemistry, 3 ed. Wiley InterscienceGoogle Scholar
- USEPA (1991) Maximum contaminant level goals and national primary drinking water regulations for lead and copper. Fed Regist 56:26460–26564Google Scholar
- Whelan A, Craft JL (1977) Developments in PVC production and processing-1. Applied Science Publishers, LondonGoogle Scholar
- WHO (2011) Water sanitation and health: guidelines for drinking water qualityGoogle Scholar