Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 22, Issue 11, pp 8405–8411 | Cite as

Leaching of lead from new unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) pipes into drinking water

  • Yuanyuan Zhang
  • Yi-Pin LinEmail author
Research Article

Abstract

Unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) pipes have been used in the premise plumbing system due to their high strength, long-term durability, and low cost. uPVC pipes, however, may contain lead due to the use of lead compounds as the stabilizer during the manufacturing process. The release of lead from three locally purchased uPVC pipes was investigated in this study. The effects of various water quality parameters including pH value, temperature, and type of disinfectant on the rate of lead release were examined. The elemental mapping obtained using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) confirmed the presence of lead on the inner surfaces of the uPVC pipes and their surface lead weight percentages were determined. The leachable lead concentration for each pipe was determined using high strength acidic EDTA solutions (pH 4, EDTA = 100 mg/L). Lead leaching experiments using tap water and reconstituted tape water under static conditions showed that the rate of lead release increased with the decreasing pH value and increasing temperature. In the presence of monochloramine, lead release was faster than that in the presence of free chlorine.

Keywords

uPVC pipe Lead Distribution system 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank financial support from National University of Singapore (R-302-000-049-112) and National Taiwan University (NTU-CDP-103R7877).

Supplementary material

11356_2014_3999_MOESM1_ESM.docx (622 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 622 kb)

References

  1. Al-Malack MH (2001) Migration of lead from unplasticized polyvinyl chloride pipes. J Hazard Mater 82:263–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bellinger D, Sloman J, Leviton A, Rabinowitz M, Needleman HL, Waternaux C (1991) Low level lead exposure and children’s cognitive function in the preschool years. Pediatrics 87:219–227Google Scholar
  3. Canfield RL, Kreher DA, Cornwell C, Henderson CR (2003) Low level lead exposure, executive functioning, and learning in early childhood. Child Neuropsychol 9:35–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Edwards M (2014) Fetal death and reduced birth rates associated with exposure to lead contaminated drinking water. Environ Sci Technol 48:739–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Edwards M, Dudi A (2004) Role of chlorine and chloramine in corrosion of lead-bearing plumbing materials. J Am Water Works Assoc 96:69–81Google Scholar
  6. Edwards M, Triantafyllidou S, Best D (2009) Elevated blood lead in young children due to lead contaminated drinking water: Washington, DC, 2001–2004. Environ Sci Technol 43:1618–1623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Guidotti TL, Calhoun T, Davies-Cole JO, Knuckles ME, Stokes L, Glymph C, Lum G, Moses MS, Goldsmith DF, Ragain L (2007) Elevated lead in drinking water in Washington, DC, 2003–2004: the public health response. Environ Health Perspect 115:695–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Jafvert CT, Valentine RL (1992) Reaction scheme for the chlorination of ammoniacal water. Environ Sci Technol 26:577–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Koh LL, Wong MK, Gan LM, Yap CT (1991) Factors affecting the leaching of lead from UPVC pipes. Environ Monitor Assess 19:203–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lasheen MR, Sharaby CM, El-Kholy NG, Elsherif IY, Ei-Wakeel ST (2008) Factors influencing lead and iron release from some Egyptian drinking water pipes. J Hazard Mater 160:675–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lin YP, Valentine RL (2008) Release of Pb(II) from monochloramine mediated dissolution of lead oxide (PbO2). Environ Sci Technol 42:9137–9143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lin YP, Valentine RL (2009) Reduction of lead oxide (PbO2) and release of Pb(II) in mixtures of natural organic matter, free chlorine and monochloramine. Environ Sci Technol 43:3872–3877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Liu HZ, Korshin GV, Ferguson JF (2008) Investigation of the kinetics and mechanisms of the oxidation of cerussite and hydrocerussite by chlorine. Environ Sci Technol 42:3241–3247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Liu HZ, Korshin GV, Ferguson JF (2009) Interactions of Pb(II)/Pb(IV) solid phases with chlorine and their effects on lead release. Environ Sci Technol 43:3278–3284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lytle DA, Schock MR (2005) Formation of Pb(IV) oxides in chlorinated water. J Am Water Works Assoc 97:102–114Google Scholar
  16. Papanikolaou NC, Hatzidaki EG, Belivanis S, Tzanakakis GN, Tsatsakis AM (2005) Lead toxicity update. A brief review. Med Sci Monit 11:RA329–RA336Google Scholar
  17. Renner R (2004) Plumbing the depths of D.C’.s drinking water crisis. Environ Sci Technol 38:224A–227ACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Renner R (2009) Out of plumb when water treatment causes lead contamination. Environ Health Perspect 117:A542–A547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Renner R (2010) Exposure on tap drinking water as an overlooked source of lead. Environ Health Perspect 118:A68–A74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sadiq M, Zaidi TH, AlMuhanna H, Mian AA (1997) Effect of distribution network pipe material on drinking water quality. J Environ Sci Health Part A-Toxic/Hazard Subst Environ Eng 32:445–454Google Scholar
  21. Stumm W, Morgan JJ (1996) Aquatic chemistry, 3 ed. Wiley InterscienceGoogle Scholar
  22. Sue K, Hakuta Y, Smith RL, Adschiri T, Arai K (1999) Solubility of lead(II) oxide and copper(II) oxide in subcritical and supercritical water. J Chem Eng Data 44:1422–1426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. USEPA (1991) Maximum contaminant level goals and national primary drinking water regulations for lead and copper. Fed Regist 56:26460–26564Google Scholar
  24. Wallenwein G (2006) PVC stabilizers: a contribution to sustainability. Plastics Plast Addit Compound 8:26–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Wang Y, Xie YJ, Li WL, Wang ZM, Giammar DE (2010) Formation of lead(IV) oxides from lead(II) compounds. Environ Sci Technol 44:8950–8956CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Whelan A, Craft JL (1977) Developments in PVC production and processing-1. Applied Science Publishers, LondonGoogle Scholar
  27. WHO (2011) Water sanitation and health: guidelines for drinking water qualityGoogle Scholar
  28. Wong MK, Gan LM, Koh LL (1988) Temperature effects on the leaching of lead from unplasticized poly(vinyl-chloride) pipes. Water Res 22:1399–1403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wong MK, Gan LM, Koh LL, Lum OL (1990) Some further studies on factors affecting the leaching of lead from unplasticized poly(vinyl chloride) pipes. Water Res 24:451–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Zhang Y, Lin YP (2011) Determination of PbO2 formation kinetics from the chlorination of Pb(II) carbonate solids via direct PbO2 measurement. Environ Sci Technol 45:2338–2344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Zhang Y, Zhang YY, Lin YP (2010) Fast detection of lead dioxide (PbO2) in chlorinated drinking water by a two-staged iodometric method. Environ Sci Technol 44:1347–1352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ziemniak SE, Palmer DA, Benezeth P, Anovitz LM (2005) Solubility of litharge (alpha-PbO) in alkaline media at elevated temperatures. J Solut Chem 34:1407–1428CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.Graduate Institute of Environmental EngineeringNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan

Personalised recommendations