POCIS passive samplers as a monitoring tool for pharmaceutical residues and their transformation products in marine environment
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In the last years, several scientific studies have shown that carbamazepine (CBZ) is one of the most frequently detected pharmaceutical in aquatic environment. However, little data is available on its detection and its transformation products (TPs) in marine water. The use of polar organic chemical integrative sampling (POCIS) passive samplers as a semi-quantitative and qualitative tool for screening of pharmaceuticals and TPs in seawater has been studied. Furthermore, the uptake rates of the target compounds were also determined under laboratory experiments to characterize the levels accumulated in devices. The results confirmed the presence of residues of anticonvulsant CBZ as well as some of its main metabolites, over a 1-year monitoring campaign carried out in French coast on the Mediterranean Sea. The work reports for the first time the presence of two TPs (10,11-dihydro-10,11-trans-dihydroxycarbamazepine (TRANS) and 10-hydroxy-10,11-dihydrocarbamazepine (10OH)) in marine water. The results contribute in assessing the environmental and human health risk of pharmaceuticals on coastal areas.
KeywordsPOCIS Emerging contaminants Metabolites Screening Mediterranean Sea Carbamazepine
The authors are very grateful for the financial support given by the Sanofi and the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche (Project PEPSEA). This work was conducted within the Chair Emerging Pollutants (Veolia-Hydrosciences). The authors also gratefully acknowledge the staff of the Ifremer LER-LR laboratory for assistance with POCIS collection. M.J. Martínez Bueno wishes to thank the University of Montpellier for the post-doc grant.
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