Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 22, Issue 7, pp 5563–5571 | Cite as

Remediation of cadmium- and lead-contaminated agricultural soil by composite washing with chlorides and citric acid

  • Yu-jiao LiEmail author
  • Peng-jie Hu
  • Jie Zhao
  • Chang-xun DongEmail author
Research Article

Abstract

Composite washing of cadmium (Cd)- and lead (Pb)-contaminated agricultural soil from Hunan province in China using mixtures of chlorides (FeCl3, CaCl2) and citric acid (CA) was investigated. The concentrations of composite washing agents for metal removal were optimized. Sequential extraction was conducted to study the changes in metal fractions after soil washing. The removal of two metals at optimum concentration was reached. Using FeCl3 mixed with CA, 44 % of Cd and 23 % of Pb were removed, and 49 and 32 % by CaCl2 mixed with CA, respectively. The mechanism of composite washing was postulated. A mixture of chlorides and CA enhanced metal extraction from soil through the formation of metal–chloride and metal–citrate complexes. CA in extract solutions promoted the formation of metal–chloride complexes and reduced the solution pH. Composite washing reduced Cd and Pb in Fe–Mn oxide forms significantly. Chlorides and CA exerted a synergistic effect on metal extraction during composite washing.

Keywords

Soil washing Heavy metals Cd Pb Composite washing Washing mechanism 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu (No. BE20130711).

References

  1. Accomasso GM, Zelano V, Daniele PG, Gastaldi D, Ginepro M, Ostacoli G (1993) A study on the reproducibility of Tessier’s extractions in a fluvial sediment and a comparison between different dissolution procedures in a reference material. Spectrochim Acta Mol Spectros 49:1205–1212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anju M, Banerjee DK (2010) Comparison of two sequential extraction procedures for heavy metal partitioning in mine tailings. Chemosphere 78:1393–1402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Batjargal T, Otgonjargal E, Baek K, Yang JS (2010) Assessment of metals contamination of soils in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. J Hazard Mater 184:872–876CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Begum ZA, Rahman IMM, Tate Y, Sawai H, Maki T, Hasegawa H (2012) Remediation of toxic metal contaminated soil by washing with biodegradable aminopolycarboxylate chelants. Chemosphere 87:1161–1170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blesa MA, Morando PJ, Regazzoni AE (1994) Chemical dissolution of metal oxides. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  6. Bolan N, Kunhikrishnan A, Thangarajan R, Kumpiene J, Park J, Makino T, Kirkham MB, Scheckel K (2014) Remediation of heavy metal(loid)s contaminated soils—to mobilize or to immobilize? J Hazard Mater 266:141–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boularbah A, Schwartz C, Bitton G, Aboudrar W, Ouhammou A, Morel JL (2006) Heavy metal contamination from mining sites in South Morocco: 2. Assessment of metal accumulation and toxicity in plants. Chemosphere 63:811–817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cooperative Research Group on Chinese Soil Taxonomy (2001) Chinese soil taxonomy. Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  9. Dermont G, Bergeron M, Mercier G, Richer-Laflèche M (2008) Soil washing for metal removal: a review of physical/chemical technologies and field applications. J Hazard Mater 152:1–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Di Palma L, Mecozzi R (2007) Heavy metals mobilization from harbour sediments using EDTA and citric acid as chelating agents. J Hazard Mater 147:768–775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Do Nascimento WCA, Amarasiriwardena D, Xing BS (2006) Comparison of natural organic acids and synthetic chelates at enhancing phytoextraction of metals from a multi-metal contaminated soil. Environ Pollut 140:114–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Elliott HA, Shastri NL (1999) Extractive decontamination of metal-polluted soils using oxalate. Water Air Soil Pollut 110:335–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gaber SE, Rizk MS, Yehia MM (2011) Extraction of certain heavy metals from sewage sludge using different types of acids. Ni Soc Exp Biol 23:41–48Google Scholar
  14. Gustafsson (2004) Visual MINTEQ, Version 2.30. Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  15. Haynes WM, Buro TJ, Lide DR, Baysinger G, Kuchitsu K, Berger LI, Roth DL, Frenkel M, Zwillinger D (2015) CRC handbook of chemistry and physics. CRC Net base. http://www.hbcpnetbase.com/
  16. Isoyama M, Wada SI (2007) Remediation of Pb-contaminated soils by washing with hydrochloric acid and subsequent immobilization with calcite and allophanic soil. J Hazard Mater 143:636–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jan FA, Ishaq M, Lhsanullah I, Asim SM (2010) Multivariate statistical analysis of heavy metals pollution in industrial area and its comparison with relatively less polluted area: a case study from the City of Peshawar and district Dir Lower. J Hazard Mater 176:609–616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jean-Soro L, Bordas F, Bollinger JC (2012) Column leaching of chromium and nickel from a contaminated soil using EDTA and citric acid. Environ Pollut 164:175–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kim KJ, Kim DH, Yoo JC, Baek K (2011) Electrokinetic extraction of heavy metals from dredged marine sediment. Sep Purif Technol 79:164–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ko I, Lee CH, Lee KP, Lee SW, Kim KW (2005) Remediation of soil contaminated with arsenic, zinc, and nickel by pilot-scale soil washing. Environ Prog 25:39–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kuo S, Lai MS, Lin CW (2006) Influence of solution acidity and CaCl2 concentration on the removal of heavy metals from metal-contaminated rice soils. Environ Pollut 144:918–925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Labanowski J, Monna F, Bermond A, Cambier P, Fernandez C, Lamy I (2008) Kinetic extractions to assess mobilization of Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd in a metal-contaminated soil: EDTA vs. citrate. Environ Pollut 152:693–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Le Riche HH, Weir AH (1963) A method of studying trace elements in soil fractions. J Soil Sci 14:225–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lee MH, Paik IS, Do WH, Kim IS, Lee YS, Lee SH (2007) Soil washing of As-contaminated stream sediments in the vicinity of an abandoned mine in Korea. Environ Geochem Hlth 29:319–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Li JY, Xu RK, Tiwari D, Ji GL (2006) Effect of low-molecular-weight organic acids on the distribution of mobilized Al between soil solution and solid phase. Appl Geochem 21:1750–1759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Li HB, Yu S, Li GL, Liu Y, Yu GB, Deng H, Wu SC, Wong MH (2012) Urbanization increased metal levels in lake surface sediment and catchment topsoil of waterscape parks. Sci Total Environ 432:202–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lindsay WL (2001) Chemical equilibria in soils. The Blackburn Press, CheshireGoogle Scholar
  28. Liu D, Islam E, Li TQ, Yang XE, Jin XF, Mahmood Q (2008) Comparison of synthetic chelators and low molecular weight organic acids in enhancing phytoextraction of heavy metals by two ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance. J Hazard Mater 153:114–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lu RK (1999) Agricultural soil chemical analysis. China Agricultural Science and Technology Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  30. Maas S, Scheifler R, Benslama M, Crini N, Lucot E, Brahmia Z, Benyacoub S, Giraudoux P (2010) Spatial distribution of heavy metal concentrations in urban, suburban and agricultural soils in a Mediterranean city of Algeria. Environ Pollut 158:2294–2301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Makino T, Sugahara K, Sakurai Y, Takano H, Kamiya T, Sasaki K, Itou T, Sekiya N (2006) Remediation of cadmium contamination in paddy soils by washing with chemicals: selection of washing chemicals. Environ Pollut 144:2–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Makino T, Kamiya T, Naoki H (2007) Remediation of cadmium-contaminated paddy soils by washing with calcium chloride: verification of onsite washing. Environ Pollut 147:112–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Makino T, Takano H, Kamiya T, Itou T, Sekiya N, Inahara M, Sakurai Y (2008) Restoration of cadmium-contaminated paddy soils by washing with ferric chloride. Chemosphere 70:1035–1043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Peters RW (1999) Chelant extraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils. J Hazard Mater 66:151–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Qin F, Shan XQ, Wei B (2004) Effects of low-molecular-weight organic acids and residence time on desorption of Cu, Cd, and Pb from soils. Chemosphere 57:253–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Qiu RL, Zou ZL, Zhang WH, Zhang T, Dong HY, Wei XG (2010) Removal of trace and major metals by soil washing with Na2EDTA and oxalate. J Soil Sediment 10:45–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Schwab AP, Zhu DS, Banks MK (2008) Influence of organic acids on the transport of heavy metals in soil. Chemosphere 72:986–994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Stumm W (1992) Chemistry of the solid-water interface processes at the mineral-water and particle-water interface in natural systems. Wiley-Interscience, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  39. Stylianou MA, Kollia D, Haralambous KJ, Inglezakis VJ, Moustakas KG, Loizidou MD (2007) Effect of acid treatment on the removal of heavy metals. Desalination 216:73–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tessier A, Campbell PGC, Bisson M (1979) Sequential extraction procedure for the speciation of particulate trace metals. Anal Chem 51:844–851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Torres LG, Lopez RB, Beltran M (2012) Removal of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn from a highly contaminated industrial soil using surfactant enhanced soil washing. Phys Chem Earth 37–39:30–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Udovic M, Lestan D (2009) Pb, Zn and Cd mobility, availability and fractionation in aged soil remediated by EDTA leaching. Chemosphere 74:1367–1373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Udovic M, Lestan D (2012) EDTA and HCl leaching of calcareous and acidic soils polluted with potentially toxic metals: remediation efficiency and soil impact. Chemosphere 88:718–724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Yao ZT, Li JH, Xie HH, Yu CH (2012) Review on remediation technologies of soil contaminated by heavy metals. Proc Environ Sci 16:722–729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Yoo JC, Lee CD, Yang JS, Baek K (2013) Extraction characteristics of heavy metals from marine sediments. Chem Eng J 228:688–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zhu YW, Shen RS, Qian QW (1989) The sequential extraction of five-component metal element in soil. Soils 3:163–166Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of SciencesNanjing Agricultural UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.Institute of Soil ScienceChinese Academy of SciencesNanjingChina

Personalised recommendations