Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 22, Issue 4, pp 3023–3031 | Cite as

Pharmacodynamic interaction of Spirulina platensis and deltamethrin in freshwater fish Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus: impact on lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress

  • Nevien K. M. Abdelkhalek
  • Emad W. Ghazy
  • Mohamed M. Abdel-DaimEmail author
Research Article


Spirulina platensis (SP) is one of the most commonly used dietary supplements in human and many animal species, including fish. Recently, it has gained more attention in fish not only for its growth-promoting and immunomodulatory effects but also for its antioxidant potential. The present study was conducted to investigate the protective role of two different dietary levels of SP on freshwater Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus exposed to subacute deltamethrin (DLM) intoxication. Spirulina was supplemented at levels of 0.5 and 1 % in the diet along with DLM at a concentration of 1.46 μg/l for 28 days. Serum biochemical parameters, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein, albumin, cholesterol, urea, uric acid and creatinine, were estimated. In addition, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was analysed as a lipid peroxidation marker. Reduced glutathione (GSH) content and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were analysed as antioxidant biomarkers in liver, kidney and gills. The results revealed that DLM intoxication increased serum AST, ALT, ALP, cholesterol, urea, uric acid, creatinine and tissue MDA, while decreased serum total protein and albumin as well as tissue GSH level and GSH-Px, SOD and CAT activities. SP supplementation at the two tested levels enhanced all altered serum biochemical parameters as well as tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant biomarkers. Therefore, it could be concluded that SP administration could minimize DLM-induced toxic effects by its free radical scavenging and potent antioxidant activity.


Oreochromis niloticus Deltamethrin Oxidative stress Spirulina Antioxidant 



This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

Supplementary material

11356_2014_3578_MOESM1_ESM.docx (19 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 19 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nevien K. M. Abdelkhalek
    • 1
  • Emad W. Ghazy
    • 2
  • Mohamed M. Abdel-Daim
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Internal Medicine, Infectious and Fish Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineEl Mansoura UniversityMansouraEgypt
  2. 2.Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineKafrelsheikh UniversityKafr El-SheikhEgypt
  3. 3.Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineSuez Canal UniversityIsmailiaEgypt

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