Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 22, Issue 1, pp 223–230 | Cite as

Immobilization of Pb, Cd, and Zn in a contaminated soil using eggshell and banana stem amendments: metal leachability and a sequential extraction study

  • Mehrnaz AshrafiEmail author
  • Sharifah Mohamad
  • Ismail Yusoff
  • Fauziah Shahul Hamid
Research Article


Heavy-metal-contaminated soil is one of the major environmental pollution issues all over the world. In this study, two low-cost amendments, inorganic eggshell and organic banana stem, were applied to slightly alkaline soil for the purpose of in situ immobilization of Pb, Cd, and Zn. The artificially metal-contaminated soil was treated with 5 % eggshell or 10 % banana stem. To simulate the rainfall conditions, a metal leaching experiment for a period of 12 weeks was designed, and the total concentrations of the metals in the leachates were determined every 2 weeks. The results from the metal leaching analysis revealed that eggshell amendment generally reduced the concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Zn in the leachates, whereas banana stem amendment was effective only on the reduction of Cd concentration in the leachates. A sequential extraction analysis was carried out at the end of the experiment to find out the speciation of the heavy metals in the amended soils. Eggshell amendment notably decreased mobility of Pb, Cd, and Zn in the soil by transforming their readily available forms to less accessible fractions. Banana stem amendment also reduced exchangeable form of Cd and increased its residual form in the soil.


Eggshell Banana Stem Heavy metals Immobilization Metal leaching Sequential extraction 



The authors would like to acknowledge the University of Malaya for the financial assistant through PPP grant No. P0001-2012B.

Supplementary material

11356_2014_3299_MOESM1_ESM.docx (39 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 38 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mehrnaz Ashrafi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sharifah Mohamad
    • 2
  • Ismail Yusoff
    • 3
  • Fauziah Shahul Hamid
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  3. 3.Department of Geology, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia

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