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Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity induced by municipal effluent in multiple organs of Wistar rats

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The aim of this study was to evaluate cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in multiple organs of rats induced by municipal effluent released by submarine outfall in city of Santos. A total of 20 male Wistar rats were exposed to effluents by drinking water ad libitum at concentrations of 0, 10, 50, and 100 % for 30 days. Microscopic analysis revealed severe lesions such as necrosis and hemorrhagic areas in liver and kidney from animals exposed to effluent at 50 and 100 % concentration. DNA damage in peripheral blood, liver, and kidney cells were detected by comet assay at higher concentrations of effluent. Moreover, a decrease DNA repair capacity was detected in liver cells. Significant statistical differences (p < 0.05) for micronucleated cells from liver were noticed at 50 % concentration of effluent. Taken together, our results demonstrate that municipal effluent is able to induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in multiple organs of Wistar rats.

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This work was supported by CNPq (National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development). AC, CFGM, WV, and DAR are fellowships from CNPq. VHPS is a recipient form CAPES (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Level—or Education—Personnel).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there are no conflict of interest.

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Correspondence to Daniel Araki Ribeiro.

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Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues

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da Silva, V.H.P., de Moura, C.F.G., Ribeiro, F.A.P. et al. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity induced by municipal effluent in multiple organs of Wistar rats. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21, 13069–13080 (2014).

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  • Municipal effluent
  • Apoptosis
  • Mutagenicity
  • DNA damage
  • Rat