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Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity induced by municipal effluent in multiple organs of Wistar rats

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in multiple organs of rats induced by municipal effluent released by submarine outfall in city of Santos. A total of 20 male Wistar rats were exposed to effluents by drinking water ad libitum at concentrations of 0, 10, 50, and 100 % for 30 days. Microscopic analysis revealed severe lesions such as necrosis and hemorrhagic areas in liver and kidney from animals exposed to effluent at 50 and 100 % concentration. DNA damage in peripheral blood, liver, and kidney cells were detected by comet assay at higher concentrations of effluent. Moreover, a decrease DNA repair capacity was detected in liver cells. Significant statistical differences (p < 0.05) for micronucleated cells from liver were noticed at 50 % concentration of effluent. Taken together, our results demonstrate that municipal effluent is able to induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in multiple organs of Wistar rats.

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported by CNPq (National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development). AC, CFGM, WV, and DAR are fellowships from CNPq. VHPS is a recipient form CAPES (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Level—or Education—Personnel).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there are no conflict of interest.

Author information

Correspondence to Daniel Araki Ribeiro.

Additional information

Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues

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da Silva, V.H.P., de Moura, C.F.G., Ribeiro, F.A.P. et al. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity induced by municipal effluent in multiple organs of Wistar rats. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21, 13069–13080 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-3261-5

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Keywords

  • Municipal effluent
  • Apoptosis
  • Mutagenicity
  • DNA damage
  • Rat