Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 21, Issue 19, pp 11238–11249 | Cite as

Highly active photocatalytic coatings prepared by a low-temperature method

  • Marko Kete
  • Egon Pavlica
  • Fernando Fresno
  • Gvido Bratina
  • Urška Lavrenčič Štangar
Photocatalysis: new highlights from JEP 2013

Abstract

Photocatalytic properties of titanium (IV) oxide (TiO2) in anatase form can be used for various purposes, including photocatalytic purification of water. For such an application, suspended or fixed photocatalytic reactors are used. Those with fixed phase seem to be preferred due to some advantages, one of which is the avoidance of photocatalyst filtration. To avoid leaching and exfoliation of the fixed phase, an immobilization procedure leading to a good adhesion of a catalyst to a substrate is crucial. Within this work, we present physical and photocatalytic characterization results of five commercially available TiO2 photocatalysts (P25, P90, PC500, KRONOClean 7000, VPC-10) and one pigment (Hombitan LO-CR-S-M), which were successfully immobilized on glass slides by a “sol suspension” procedure. Different mechanical tests and characterization methods were used to evaluate the stability and morphology of the layers. Evaluation of photocatalytic activity was done by tests under UVA and UV–vis irradiation, using a method based on the detection of the fluorescent oxidation product of terephthalic acid (TPA), i.e., hydroxyterephthalic acid (HTPA). Aeroxide® P90 incorporated into the silica-titania binder was the most photocatalytically active layer and, unlike the others, showed significant increase of photocatalytic activity through the entire range of tested UVA irradiation intensities (2.3 mW/cm2–6.1 mW/cm2). The high mechanical stability of some photocatalytic layers allows using them in water photocatalytic purification reactions.

Keywords

Photocatalysis Titanium dioxide nanoparticles Sol suspension Hydroxyterephthalic acid P25 P90 PC500 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to Betka Goličič and Dr. Urh Černigoj from R&D department of BIA Separations for BET analyses. E.P. and G. B. acknowledge the support by the ESF Project GOSPEL (Ref.Nr: 09-EuroGRAPHENE-FP-001). This work has been also financially supported by Electrolux S.P.A. and the Slovenian Research Agency.

The doctoral study of M. Kete is partly cofinanced by the European Union through the European Social Fund. Cofinancing is carried out within the framework of the Operational Program for Human Resources Development for 2007–2013, 1. Development priority: Promoting entrepreneurship and adaptability; priority 1.3: Scholarship Scheme.

Supplementary material

11356_2014_3077_MOESM1_ESM.docx (204 kb)
Fig. S1 (DOCX 204 kb)
11356_2014_3077_MOESM2_ESM.docx (1 mb)
Fig. S2 (DOCX 1064 kb)
11356_2014_3077_MOESM3_ESM.docx (853 kb)
Fig. S3 (DOCX 853 kb)
11356_2014_3077_MOESM4_ESM.docx (35 kb)
Table S1 (DOCX 35 kb)

References

  1. Akly C, Chadik PA, Mazyck DW (2010) Photocatalysis of gas-phase toluene using silica-titania composites: performance of a novel catalyst immobilization technique suitable for large-scale applications. Appl Catal B Environ 99:329–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Almquist CB, Biswas P (2002) Role of synthesis method and particle size of nanostructured TiO2 on its photoactivity. J Catal 212:145–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anpo M, Shima T, Kodama S, Kubokawa Y (1987) Photocatalytic hydrogenation of propyne with water on small-particle titania: size quantization effects and reaction intermediates. J Phys Chem 91:4305–4310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Armelao L, Barreca D, Bottaro G et al (2007) Photocatalytic and antibacterial activity of TiO2 and Au/TiO2 nanosystems. Nanotechnology 18:375709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bekermann D, Gasparotto A, Barreca D et al (2010) ZnO nanorod arrays by plasma-enhanced CVD for light-activated functional applications. ChemPhysChem 11:2337–2340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bekermann D, Gasparotto A, Barreca D et al (2012) Epitaxial-like growth of Co3O4/ZnO quasi-1D nanocomposites. Cryst Growth Des 12:5118–5124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brosillon S, Lhomme L, Vallet C et al (2008) Gas phase photocatalysis and liquid phase photocatalysis: interdependence and influence of substrate concentration and photon flow on degradation reaction kinetics. Appl Catal B Environ 78:232–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brunauer S, Emmett PH, Teller E (1938) Adsorption of gases in multimolecular layers. J Am Chem Soc 60:309–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cerna M, Vesey M, Dzik P et al (2013) Fabrication, characterization and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 layers prepared by inkjet printing of stabilized nanocrystalline suspensions. Appl Catal B Environ 138–139:84–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cernigoj U, Kete M, Štangar UL (2010) Development of a fluorescence-based method for evaluation of self-cleaning properties of photocatalytic layers. Catal Today 151:46–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen Y, Dionysiou DD (2006) TiO2 photocatalytic films on stainless steel: the role of Degussa P-25 in modified sol–gel methods. Appl Catal B Environ 62:255–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chen Y, Dionysiou DD (2008) Bimodal mesoporous TiO2-P25 composite thick films with high photocatalytic activity and improved structural integrity. Appl Catal B Environ 80:147–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dostanic J, Grbic B, Radic N et al (2013) Preparation and photocatalyic properties of TiO2-P25 film prepared by spray pyrolysis method. Appl Surf Sci 274:321–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fekete L, Kusova K, Petrak V, Kratochvilova I (2012) AFM topographies of densely packed nanoparticles: a quick way to determine the lateral size distribution by autocorrelation function analysis. J Nanoparticle Res 14:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Folli A, Pade C, Hansen TB et al (2012) TiO2 photocatalysis in cementitious systems: insights into self-cleaning and depollution chemistry. Cem Concr Res 42:539–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Herrmann J-M (2010) Photocatalysis fundamentals revisited to avoid several misconceptions. Appl Catal B Environ 99:461–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Imoberdorf GE, Vella G, Sclafani A et al (2010) Radiation model of a TiO2-coated, quartz wool, packed-bed photocatalytic reactor. AIChE J 56:1030–1044Google Scholar
  18. Kesmez O, Camurlu HE, Burunkaya E, Arpac E (2009) Sol–gel preparation and characterization of anti-reflective and self-cleaning SiO2-TiO2 double-layer nanometric films. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 93:1833–1839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kim J, Kim J, Lee M (2010) Laser-induced enhancement of the surface hardness of nanoparticulate TiO2 self-cleaning layer. Surf Coat Technol 205:372–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Klug HP, Alexander LE (1974) X-ray diffraction procedures, 2nd edn. Wiley, New York, p 687Google Scholar
  21. Krysa J, Keppert M, Waldner G, Jirkovsky J (2005) Immobilized particulate TiO2 photocatalysts for degradation of organic pollutants: effect of layer thickness. Electrochim Acta 50:5255–5260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lin H, Huang CP, Li W et al (2006) Size dependency of nanocrystalline TiO2 on its optical property and photocatalytic reactivity exemplified by 2-chlorophenol. Appl Catal B Environ 68:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lopez L, Daoud WA, Dutta D et al (2013) Effect of substrate on surface morphology and photocatalysis of large-scale TiO2 films. Appl Surf Sci 265:162–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Maira AJ, Yeung KL, Lee CY et al (2000) Size effects in gas-phase photo-oxidation of trichloroethylene using nanometer-sized TiO2 catalysts. J Catal 192:185–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Malato S, Fernandez-Ibanez P, Maldonado MI et al (2009) Decontamination and disinfection of water by solar photocatalysis: recent overview and trends. Catal Today 147:1–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mallak M, Bockmeyer M, Lobmann P (2007) Liquid phase deposition of TiO2 on glass: systematic comparison to films prepared by sol–gel processing. Thin Solid Films 515:8072–8077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Miranda-Garcia N, Maldonado MI, Coronado JM, Malato S (2010) Degradation study of 15 emerging contaminants at low concentration by immobilized TiO2 in a pilot plant. Catal Today 151:107–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Miranda-Garcia N, Suarez S, Sanchez B et al (2011) Photocatalytic degradation of emerging contaminants in municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents using immobilized TiO2 in a solar pilot plant. Appl Catal B Environ 103:294–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Murphy AB (2007) Band-gap determination from diffuse reflectance measurements of semiconductor films, and application to photoelectrochemical water-splitting. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 91:1326–1337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nair RG, Paul S, Samdarshi SK (2011) High UV/visible light activity of mixed phase titania: a generic mechanism. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 95:1901–1907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Nawi MA, Zain SM (2012) Enhancing the surface properties of the immobilized Degussa P-25 TiO2 for the efficient photocatalytic removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution. Appl Surf Sci 258:6148–6157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Neti NR, Parmar GR, Bakardjieva S, Subrt J (2010) Thick film titania on glass supports for vapour phase photocatalytic degradation of toluene, acetone, and ethanol. Chem Eng J 163:219–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Novotna P, Zita J, Krysa J et al (2008) Two-component transparent TiO2/SiO2 and TiO2/PDMS films as efficient photocatalysts for environmental cleaning. Appl Catal B Environ 79:179–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ohtani B (2010) Photocatalysis a to Z—what we know and what we do not know in a scientific sense. J Photochem Photobiol C Photochem Rev 11:157–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ohtani B, Zhang S-W, Nishimoto S, Kagiya T (1992) Catalytic and photocatalytic decomposition of ozone at room temperature over titanium(IV) oxide. J Chem Soc Faraday Trans 88:1049–1053CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Paola AD, Bellardita M, Palmisano L et al (2014) Influence of crystallinity and OH surface density on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 powders. J Photochem Photobiol A Chem 273:59–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Peng D, Carneiro TJ, Moulijn AJ, Mul G (2008) A novel photocatalytic monolith reactor for multiphase heterogeneous photocatalysis. Appl Catal A Gen 334:119–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Plesch G, Vargova M, Vogt UF et al (2012) Zr doped anatase supported reticulated ceramic foams for photocatalytic water purification. Mater Res Bull 47:1680–1686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Qiu W, Zheng Y (2007) A comprehensive assessment of supported titania photocatalysts in a fluidized bed photoreactor: photocatalytic activity and adherence stability. Appl Catal B Environ 71:151–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rizzo L (2009) Inactivation and injury of total coliform bacteria after primary disinfection of drinking water by TiO2 photocatalysis. J Hazard Mater 165:48–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sampaio MJ, Silva CG, Silva AMT, et al. (2013) Photocatalytic activity of TiO2-coated glass raschig rings on the degradation of phenolic derivatives under simulated solar light irradiation. Chemical Engineering Journal 224:32–38. doi: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.cej.2012.11.027
  42. Sanchez M, Rivero MJ, Ortiz I (2010) Photocatalytic oxidation of grey water over titanium dioxide suspensions. Desalination 262:141–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sciacca F, Rengifo-Herrera JA, Wethe J, Pulgarin C (2011) Solar disinfection of wild salmonella sp. in natural water with a 18 L CPC photoreactor: detrimental effect of non-sterile storage of treated water. Sol Energy 85:1399–1408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Shan AY, Ghazi TIM, Rashid SA (2010) Immobilisation of titanium dioxide onto supporting materials in heterogeneous photocatalysis: a review. Appl Catal A Gen 389:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Souzanchi S, Vahabzadeh F, Fazel S, Hosseini SN (2013) Performance of an annular sieve-plate column photoreactor using immobilized TiO2 on stainless steel support for phenol degradation. Chem Eng J 223:268–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Šuligoj A, Cernigoj U, Štangar LU (2010) Preparation procedure of durable titania coatings on metal supports for photocatalytic cleaning applications. Patent number SI 23585 A:The Slovenian Intellectual Property Office, Ljubljana.Google Scholar
  47. Tasbihi M, Kete M, Raichur AM et al (2012) Photocatalytic degradation of gaseous toluene by using immobilized titania/silica on aluminum sheets. Environ Sci Pollut Res 19:3735–3742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zhang L, Dillert R, Bahnemann D, Vormoor M (2012) Photo-induced hydrophilicity and self-cleaning: models and reality. Energy Environ Sci 5:7491–7507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Zhu X, Nanny MA, Butler EC (2008) Photocatalytic oxidation of aqueous ammonia in model gray waters. Water Res 42:2736–2744CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marko Kete
    • 1
  • Egon Pavlica
    • 2
  • Fernando Fresno
    • 1
  • Gvido Bratina
    • 2
  • Urška Lavrenčič Štangar
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory for Environmental ResearchUniversity of Nova GoricaNova GoricaSlovenia
  2. 2.Laboratory of Organic Matter PhysicsUniversity of Nova GoricaAjdovščinaSlovenia

Personalised recommendations